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The Extension of Comparative Social Policy. League tables of early welfare states. Eg . Social Expenditure as % of GDP 1960 1981 USA 10.9 21.0 = ‘laggard’ West Germany 20.5 31.5 France 13.4* 23.8* UK 13.9 24.9 = ‘laggard’ Sweden 14.5 33.5

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league tables of early welfare states
League tables of early welfare states


Social Expenditure as % of GDP


USA 10.9 21.0 = ‘laggard’

West Germany 20.5 31.5

France 13.4* 23.8*

UK 13.9 24.9 = ‘laggard’

Sweden 14.5 33.5


* Excluding education expenditure

predominant ideology clusters of welfare state regime
‘Predominant ideology’ clusters of welfare state regime

Conservative Liberal Socialist


(W) Germany USA Denmark

France Japan Norway

Italy UK Sweden


Adapted from Esping Andersen 1990.

hallmarks of welfare statism
Hallmarks of welfare statism

Ingredient Indicator

Rich, capitalist, free market: OECD ratings

Civil rights: Freedom from arbitrary constraints, rights of redress versus public authorities, freedom of speech & of conscience, rights of peaceful protest.

Political rights: Freedom to vote ‘in private’, freedom to stand for election, freedom to campaign peacefully for change.

Social rights: Entitlements to social protection by virtue of citizenship &/or occupation &/or contribution record and/or proof of need according to non- arbitrary criteria.

Approved social obligations: Civic, civil, third sector social activity.


Jones Finer (1999)

homespun welfare states eg islands of the former british west indies
Homespun Welfare states ?Eg. Islands of the former British West Indies


  • Functioning democracies
  • Popular expectations of government as provider (ie.itshould be providing)
  • Rudimentary/minimalist welfare state type services on the ground


4. Popular cynicism re actual government/politician performances

5. Residualist attitudes eg to ‘welfare’

  • Not enough money.

(Jones Finer 2008)

productivist welfare regimes a temporary catch up category
‘Productivist’ welfare regimes(= a temporary ‘catch-up’ category ?)


  • Social policy traditionally in the hands of government officials & the leading professional bodies.
  • Welfare always subordinated to the overriding priority of economic growth.
  • Education the largest item of government spending – pro economic growth & nation- building.
  • Unproductive social expenditure = that which has no clear economic pay-off; eg social security & social care (deemed a family responsibility).
  • Little if any support for state welfare as an instrument for redistribution or ‘social justice’

(Holliday & Wilding 2003)

informal security insecurity welfare regimes as against welfare state regimes
Informal security & insecurity welfare regimes (as against welfare state regimes)


  • Non-autonomy/permeability of ‘the state’
  • Role of community social provision in addition to that of family & the market
  • Role of international aid agencies as policy makers & would-be service deliverers.

(Adapted from Gough & Wood 2004)


“Some 40 years ago the nation state ruled in social policy. Key social problems were national and nation-specific. National governments could deal with them.

That has changed in various ways. There are now more and more social problems which simply cannot be solved by the nation state acting alone. More and more problems of this kind require action at a higher, transnational or even global level. That adds another dimension of difficulty because the structures to develop international or global social policies are at best embryonic.” (Wilding SP&A 43.7: 736-749, 2009)

global social policy discourses
Global social policy discourses

Orientation Welfare World Agency Promulgating

Existing welfare=

Burden Liberal IMF, OECD

Social cohesion Conservative EU, ILO, WB


Investment/ Social -------------

Redistributive Democracy

Emerging welfare=

Safety net Social liberal WB, EU

Work-fare Social liberal IMF


Entitlement Futuristic ILO, COE

Redistribution ------------ -----------

(Deacon & Hulse 1997)


Deacon, Bob; Hulse, Michelle (1997) Global Social Policy: International orgnizations and the future of welfare, London: Sage.

Goodman, Roger; White, Gordon; Kwon, Huck-ju (1998) The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State, London: Routledge.

Gough, Ian; Wood, Geof (eds.) (2004) Insecurity and Welfare Regimes in Asia, Africa and Latin America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jones, C. (1985) Patterns of Social Policy: An Introduction to Comparative Analysis, London: Routledge.

Jones Finer, C. (2008) ‘The long shadow of the plantation’, unpublished paper presented at the Arthur Lewis Memorial Conference, Sept 22-25, University of the West Indies, St Augustine campus, Trinidad.

Holliday, Ian; Wilding, Paul (eds.) (2003) Welfare Capitalismin East Asia: Social Policy in the Tiger Economies, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ramesh, M. (2004) Social Policy in East & Southeast Asia, London: Routledge.

Rodgers, Barbara; Doron, Abraham; Jones, Michael (1979) The Study of Social Policy: A Comparative Approach, London: George Allen & Unwin.

Rose, Richard; Shiratori, Rei (eds.) (1986) The Welfare State East and West, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilding, Paul (2009) ‘Social Policy Now and Then’, Social Policy & Administration, Vol 43 No 7, pp. 736-749.

Wilensky, Harold (1975) The Welfare State & Equality: Structural & Ideological Roots of Public Expenditure, Berkeley: University of California Press.