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Animal Populations. What is a population of animals?. Population: _____________. What is a population of animals?. Population:  group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area at the same time (that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring).

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what is a population of animals
What is a population of animals?
  • Population: _____________
what is a population of animals1
What is a population of animals?
  • Population:
    •  group of individuals from the same species that live in the same area at the same time (that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring).
animal population characteristics
Animal Population Characteristics
  • Size:
  • Density:
  • Dispersion:
  • Age distribution
animal population characteristics1
Animal Population Characteristics
  • Size: number of individuals
  • Density: the number of individuals per unit area or volume.
  • Dispersion: pattern of spacing among animals within geographic population boundaries.
        • clumped
        • even
        • random
  • Age distribution
dispersion1
Dispersion

What is an example of clumping?

dispersion2
Dispersion

Can you think of animals who exhibit this type of population behaviors?

dispersion3
Dispersion

Territorial Birds

Prairie Dogs

Nesting Seabirds

types of factors influencing population
Types of factors influencing population
  • Abiotic Factors: __________
  • Biotic Factors: ___________
types of factors influencing population1
Types of factors influencing population
  • Abiotic Factors: Non-Living
  • Biotic Factors: Living
what limits population growth
What Limits Population Growth?

Abiotic (Increase)

  • Optimal light
  • Optimal temperature
  • Optimal nutrients

Abiotic(Decrease)

  • Too much / little light
  • Too low / high temperature
  • Too low nutrients
what limits population growth1
What Limits Population Growth?

Biotic (Increase)

  • High Reproductive Rate
  • Generalized Niche
  • Adequate food supply
  • Optimal habitat

Biotic(Decrease)

  • Low Reproductive Rate
  • Specialized Niche
  • Inadequate food supply
  • Degraded habitat
slide14
Biotic Increase Continued

Ability to compete for resources

Ability to avoid predators

Ability to resist diseases

Ability to migrate

Ability to adapt to environmental change

Biotic Decrease Cont’d

Unable to compete for resources

Inability to avoid predators

Inability to resist diseases

Inability to migrate

Inability to adapt to environmental change

exponential growth
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
  • Growth in which the rate of growth in each generation is a multiple of the previous generation
  • Where r is the intrinsic rate of growth& N0 is the initial population
exponential growth1
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
  • Where r is the intrinsic rate of population growth
  • r = (gaining)-(losing)
      • Can be positive, negative, or zero

r = (births + immigrations) - (deaths + emigrations)

slide19

Calculate r ?

R= (gaining) – (losing)

2 births + 2 Immigrates

-

2 Emigrates + 1 Death

=

r= 1

logistic growth
LOGISTIC GROWTH
  • Carrying capacity (K):
    • the maximum population size that a particular environment can support.
growth of bacteria
Growth of bacteria
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEwzDydciWc
  • What are the reasons why the bacteria won’t go on reproducing and eventually take over the world.
    • Limiting Factors
        • Density Dependent
        • Density Independent
density dependent
Density-dependent
  • competition
  • water-quality
  • predation
  • living space
  • parasitism/ disease
density independent
Density-Independent
  • Effects not influenced by populations size
    • Temperature
    • Storms
    • Floods
    • Drought
survivorship
Survivorship
  • Refers to the number of survivors of a population after a given period of time - just like the TV show! Life tables are used to summarize patterns of life and death; follows a cohort of individuals.  If we plot % survivors vs. time there are three basic patterns
    • Type I: most individuals reach physiological age, little infant mortality, lot of maternal care (e.g., humans)
    • Type II: constant mortality (e.g., many animals)
    • Type III: high infant mortality, little maternal care (e.g., many invertebrates, fish)
slide27

Snowshoe hares are preyed upon by lynx. Both species show pronounced population cycles. The cycles are roughly synchronized, although the rise and fall of lynx populations slightly lags the rise and fall of hare populations

how do scientist know how many animals are in a population
How do Scientist know how many animals are in a population?
  • Population Sampling:
      • Transect
      • Random
      • Tagging

What are the pros and cons to using each of these types of sample counting?

What are types of organisms that could be used in each of these counts?

3. Can you use actual counting techniques for some of these populations?

tagging organisms
Tagging Organisms
  • # of Marked Recaptured = Total Marked

Total Captured Total Population

This is what field researchers are trying to find

Capture, Mark, & Recapture Lab

random
Random
  • Randomly selected areas are counted instead of the
  • entire area
      • Make a GRID
      • Count the total number of squares in the grid
      • Choose one square of the grid at random.
      • Count the population in that one square.
      • Estimate the total population by multiplying the number in one square time the total squares in the grid.
transect
Transect
  • Make a “T” on a graph

Count this box twice!!!

population sampling lab
Population Sampling Lab
  • Population Sampling Lab packet is due tomorrow
  • Which method is the most accurate?
deer tagging in wisconsin
Deer Tagging in Wisconsin
  • For tomorrow……
  • Find on Article on tagging animals in the wild
preserving habitats ecosystems
Preserving Habitats & Ecosystems
  • Conservation Strategies focus in on saving an entire ecosystem rather than individual species
  • In 1973, the U.S. Congress passed the Endangered Species Act (ESA)
      • Designed to protect plant and animals species in danger of extinction against humans or government projects
      • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identified 2269 species that were listed as endangered or threatened
      • Maybe hard for a species to be classified as “endangered”
recovery and habitat conservation plans
Recovery and HabitatConservation Plans
  • Under the ESA, the USFWS must prepare a species recovery plan for each listed species.
  • Concerns from land owners, real-estate developers, and farmers
  • One compromise to these situations is a habitat conservation plan
      • A plan that attempts to protect one or more species across large areas of land through trade-offs or cooperative agreements
  • International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
slide36
IUCN
  • One development of the IUCN was the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species
    • This was an attempt to stop the slaughter of African elephants.
    • CITES made the trade of ivory illegal and thus decreased the amount of poaching and the population of the African Elephant has began to recover
reintroduction of wolves in yellowstone
Reintroduction of Wolves in Yellowstone
  • Reintroduction: placing a species into a environment that once was able to sustain
  • Endangered Species: a species that is likely to become extinct if protective measures are not taken immediately
  • Threatened Species: a species that is likely to become endangered if no measures are taken
humans causing extinctions
Humans causing extinctions
  • Habitat Destruction and Fragmentation
      • In Florida, the panther is one of the most endangered species in North America
  • Invasive Exotic Species
      • Polynesian rats on Easter Island
      • Can you think of anymore around here?
  • Harvesting, Hunting, & Poaching
      • The African Elephant
      • Whaling (Discovery Channel) 7 out of 13 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHqIOOajgFw&feature=channel
  • Pollution
      • The Bald Eagle becoming endangered because of the pesticide DDT