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Style Approach to Leadership. Comparison of Two Presidential Approaches Caroline O’Leary, Michael Leidig , Cate Kelly, Woosung Hwang and Kathleen DelPrete. Overview. Style approach description The results of research studies How the approach works Analysis of President’s Kennedy & Reagan

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Style approach to leadership

Style Approach to Leadership

Comparison of Two Presidential Approaches

Caroline O’Leary, Michael Leidig, Cate Kelly, Woosung Hwang and Kathleen DelPrete


Overview
Overview

  • Style approach description

  • The results of research studies

  • How the approach works

  • Analysis of President’s Kennedy & Reagan

  • Cultural perspective


Style approach description
Style Approach: Description

  • The Style approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader

  • The approach focuses on what the leaders do and how they act in situations


Studies research about the approach
Studies / Research about the approach

  • Ohio State University (Stogdill, 1948, 1963)

  • University of Michigan (Cartwright & Zander, 1960; Katz & Kahn, 1951; Likert, 1961, 1967)

  • Blake and Mouton (Blake & McCanse, 1991; Blake & Mouton, 1964, 1978, 1985)


Breakdown of the style approach
Breakdown of the Style Approach

  • Task behavior - The leader is concerned about production, goal attainment

  • Relationship behavior - The leader is concerned that the group members are being comfortable with themselves and working with others

  • “Purpose of the approach is to explain how the leaders combine these two kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates in their efforts reach a goal.”


Style approach studies
Style Approach: Studies

Ohio State University Results

University of Michigan Results

  • Initiating Structure: (task behaviors) organizing work, giving structure to the work context, defining role responsibilities, scheduling work activities.

  • Consideration:(relationship behaviors) building camaraderie, respect, trust, and liking between leaders and followers.

  • Product Orientation: (task behaviors) focus on technical and production aspects, workers viewed as the means to getting work accomplished.

  • Employee Orientation: (relationship behaviors) strong human relations emphasis, value individuality, interested in subordinates as human beings, pay attention to personal needs.



Major styles of leadership grid
Major Styles of Leadership Grid

  • Authority-Compliance (9,1)

  • Country Club Management (1,9)

  • Impoverished Management (1,1)

  • Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)

  • Team Management (9,9)

  • Paternalism/Maternalism (1, 9; 9,1)

  • Opportunism


Paternalism maternalism
Paternalism / Maternalism



Style approach kennedy
Style Approach: Kennedy

  • Opportunistic:

    • Team Management Style

  • Foreign Policy:

    • Bay of Pigs

    • Cuban Missile Crisis

    • Alliance for Progress

    • Vietnam

    • Communism


Kennedy cuban missile crisis
Kennedy: Cuban Missile Crisis

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OOGA-xrLyg


Style approach kennedy1
Style Approach: Kennedy

  • Domestic Policy:

    • “New Frontier”

    • Civil Rights

    • Space Program


Reagan shared vision
Reagan: Shared Vision

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2pbp0hur9RU


Style approach regan
Style Approach: Regan

  • Opportunistic:

    • The Great Communicator

      • Team Management Style

    • Communism vs. The American Dream

      • Authority-Compliance Management

    • The “Teflon President”

      • Impoverished Management

      • Iran-Contra


Cultural perspectives
Cultural Perspectives

  • How societal/cultural settings influence:

    • Leadership perception

    • Processes of followers

    • Ways perceived leadership effectiveness can be achieved

  • Two cultural dimensions:

    • Collectivism/individualism

    • Masculinity/femininity

  • Two types of leadership perception modes:

    • Recognition-based

    • Inference-based processes

  • Cultural settings insights


Crisis management style
Crisis Management & Style

  • The Cuban missile crisis : Anatomy of a Controversy

  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan : Superpower crisis &the second cold war


Kennedy cuban missile crisis1
Kennedy & Cuban Missile Crisis

  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Reaction of Kennedy's leadership to crisis

  • Russian: Before & After Stalin Era

  • Relationship between The United States and Latin America

  • South Korean: Cuban Missile Crisis & North Korean Missile Crisis

    • Communism vs. Capitalism


Reagan the soviet invasion of afghanistan
Reagan & the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

  • The Soviet War in Afghanistan

  • Reaction of Reagan's leadership of The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan:

    • Russian: USSR should admit we are loser of Cold war?

    • South Korean: South Korea and the US are strong allies?


Style conclusion
Style Conclusion

  • Similarities between two administrations