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If you’ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of the US population) suffer from a condition called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or the winter blues.

As days become shorter, many people experience mild “winter blues”, with symptoms such as fatigue, a desire to eat more, and an increased vulnerability to infection. With the coming (2) of spring, these symptoms disappear. But some people, 70 to 80% of them women, are so affected by the lack of sunlight that they become unable to function. They experience severe *disruptions in eating and sleeping patterns, mood changes, extreme loss (3) of energy and depression.

SAD is not a new phenomenon. In the 6th century AD, symptoms of winter depression among Scandinavians were noted (4) by a scholar called Jordanes. Even today, SAD is most commonly found in locations further away from the equator and nearer to the poles – up to 20% of Swedes may be affected. However, SAD was not diagnosed as a medical condition until the mid-1980s.

No one is certain what causes the condition, but some researchers believe that SAD is related to a disruption of our internal body clock. This “clock” controls the secretion of hormones that affect our daily functioning. Without sufficient sunlight, the clock does not reset itself. As a result, we may feel sleepy or hungry at inappropriate times, or suffer from mood changes. Luckily, most sufferers respond to light therapy, which involves exposure to super-bright light bulbs as a supplement (5) to weak winter sun. These may be fitted inside a light-box, which is placed in front of the user, or in the visor of a cap, which is worn by sufferers for half an hour a day.

*disruption: the interruption of normal activity


1.1 punto/ 0.20 each

due to (1)and because of

coming (2)and arrival

loss (3) and reduction

noted (4)and identified

supplement (5)and addition

2.1.5 puntos / 0.75 each

2.1 Symptoms of SAD can range from very mild to completely incapacitating.

2.2 Our internal body clock needs a certain amount of sunlight to reset itself

3.2 puntos / 0.50 each Se descuenta 0.25x errores graves o reproducción total

a) Mild “winter blues”are experienced by many people when winter begins.

b) For some people, the lack of sunlight affects them so much that they are unable to function.

c) Our daily functioning is affected by hormones controlled by our internal body clock.

d) It is fortunate that light therapy can help most SAD sufferers


4.1.5 puntos / 0.25 each

For many years, my mother .................(a) suffer ………… (b) winter blues. Every year, she became very …………. (c) and ……………(d) not eat or sleep well. But luckily, her doctor recognised that these were symptoms of SAD and arranged for appropriate treatment. Now, when winter begins, she receives light therapy for half an hour each day and …………………………….(e), she can now function normally throughout the winter ………………… (f).

(a) used to

(b) from


(d)did / could

(e)consequently/ as a result



5.2 puntos

28 words

People with SAD cannot eat or sleep as they normally do. They have mood swings and feel very tired and depressed. They can be cured with light therapy.

  • Esta pregunta evalúa el nivel de comprensión del texto.

  • La respuesta está en el texto. Debes utilizar de 25 a 50 palabras y no reproducir

  • palabras ni expresiones. La dificultad no está en localizar la pregunta, sino en

  • responderla adecuadamente. Hay que parafrasear.

  • Recomendaciones:

  • No respondas directamente Yes/No question

  • Nunca respondas específicamente al principio de tu respuesta en caso de ser

  • una Wh- question.

  • Wheredid Paul gowhen he finishedhis lunch? Tothe pub

  • Para cualquier tipo de pregunta debes comenzar parafraseando la pregunta y

  • contestando a ella. A continuación puedes dar explicaciones o detalles de

  • la misma.

  • Does Jane enjoyexotic places?

  • Accordingtothetext, Jane doesnotlikeexotic places. (+ explicacion o

  • detalles)


  • DEL TEXTO, al menos aquellas que tengan un significado muy específico.


  • According to the text/author/writer/

  • First/ly ,

  • Secondly,

  • Furthermore,

  • In addition,

  • Finally,

  • In line three, paragraph two, the writer/author/text/says / remarks /

  • mentions..

  • An example of this is….

  • For example, / For instance

  • As the writer remarks/points out in



  • Reason

  • Think of ideas

  • Make a plan

  • Write a draft

  • check

  • Content

  • Logical

  • Coherent

  • Relevant

  • Process

  • Why?

  • Reader?

  • Type of text?



  • Structure

  • Opening

  • Paragraphs

  • Conclusion

  • Accuracy

  • Grammar

  • Spelling

  • Punctuation

  • Vocabulary

  • Idioms

  • Expressions

  • Formality






  • 1er párrafo: Introducción

  • Establece el tema y la opinión

  • de manera clara, sin ningún

  • tipo de razonamiento, eso

  • resérvalo para el desarrollo.

  • 2º párrafo : Desarrollo.

  • apoya tu opinión con hechos,

  • ejemplos, y dando razones.

  • ( Si el texto es largo, cada

  • una de estas ideas debería

  • ir en párrafos diferentes)

  • 3er párrafo: Conclusión

  • Vuelve a expresar tu opinión.

  • Puedes ofrecer una solución

  • al problema planteado.

  • Escribe un borrador con las ideas u

  • opiniones que tengas sobre el tema.

  • Diseña tu propia frase de introducción,

  • que te puede servir para casi todas tus

  • composiciones de opinión.

  • Divide tu texto en párrafos, según la

  • estructura requerida.

  • Introduce tus opiniones con expresiones

  • adecuadas, sin caer en la repetición

  • ( I think, I believe, etc)

  • Usa conectores de causa,

  • de consecuencia, contraposición,

  • de añadir información, de orden,

  • de ejemplificación y de conclusión.


Let´s see some examples

Do you believe in the theory that aliens built Stonehenge?

Many people believe that aliens have influenced our civilization in the

past, and they claim that they may have helped us build places like

Stonehenge. However, I feel that nobody has proved that, and that´s

why I don´t agree with this theory.

Introduzco mi opinión

con un conector, y

de manera clara

Con esta frase

se establece

el tema

Conector de contraste,

ya que mi opinión es

diferente a la que refleja

la presentación.


Too much importance is given to taking exams at school. Do you agree?

Nowadaysmostteachers use examstoevaluatestudents´ progress. In my

opinion, thisisthemosteffectivewaytoknowtheirpupils´ abilities.

Estoy de acuerdo con la frase de presentación y no uso conector de contraposición.

También puedo parafrasear la pregunta para establecer el tema:

Nowadaystoomuchimportanceisgiventotakingexams at school.

In my opinion…….

O quizás no esté de acuerdo:

Nowadaysmostteachers use examstoevaluatestudents´ progress.

However , I believethisisnotthemostsuitablewaytoknowtheir

pupils´ abilities.




Nowadaysmanypeopleholdstrongviewsonthisquestion. However,

there are goodargumentsfor and againstit (título del tema)

- Argumentativo

Nowadaysmanypeopleholdstrongviewsonthisquestion. However,

there are manyadvantages and disadvantagesaboutit (título del tema)

- Argumentativo

At presentmanycountries are banning smoking in public places. However

ther are bothadvantages and disadvantagesaboutit. - Argumentative

Itis a wellknownfactthat in somecountriespeople are notallowedto

smoke in public places. I thinkthatallgovermentsshouldadoptthislaw.

- Opinión

Itisoftensaid / claimed / assertedthatpeopleshouldnotsmoke

in publicplaces.However I believethateverybodyshouldbeallowedto

smokeeverywhere. - Opinión


For the great majority of people people should not smoke in public places.

I strongly agree with this because we must respect non-smokers.

- Opinion.

A problemthatisoftendebatednowadaysisthat of people smoking in

public places. From my point of view, peopleshouldnotsmoke in those

places. - Opinion.

Todas las presentaciones de opinión pueden ser adaptadas para textos

argumentativos, cambiando la opinión personal por la coletilla:

However, there are both advantages and disadvantages about it (tema)



  • I (personally) think / I do not think that…

  • I (strongly) believe that…..

  • I feel / I don´t feel that…….

  • It seems to me that………

  • I agree / I do not agree that……..(+ oración)

  • with ….. (+ pronombre/nombre)

  • In my opinion / view

  • From my point of view

  • As I see it

  • As far as I am concerned

  • It is clear to me that

  • In conclusion,…

  • To sum up…

  • In short,..






  • 1er párrafo: Introducción

  • Establece el tema general

  • de manera impersonal, sin dar

  • tu opinión, y dejando claro que

  • es un tema que tiene ventajas y

  • desventajas; o argumentos a

  • favor y en contra.

  • 2º párrafo : Desarrollo.

  • Sin dar tu opinión, comenta las

  • ventajas y desventajas. Puedes

  • utilizar ejemplos, opiniones de

  • otros, pero siempre de una manera razonada.(Podemos hacer 2 párrafos uno para las ventajas, otro para desventajas)

  • 3er párrafo: Conclusión

  • Comentario concluyente con opinión personal.

  • Escribe un borrador con las ventajas y desventajas q encuentres. Busca el equilibrio. Traza también lo que será tu opinión personal.

  • Diseña tu propia frase de introducción, que te puede servir para casi todas tus composiciones argument.

  • Divide tu texto en párrafos, según la

  • estructura requerida.

  • Huye de conclusiones irrelevantes o vacías de contenido.

  • Introduce tu opinión con expresiones

  • adecuadas, sin caer en la repetición

  • ( I think, I believe, etc)

  • Usa conectores de causa,

  • de consecuencia, contraposición,

  • de añadir información, de orden,

  • de ejemplificación y de conclusión. Recuerda que para marcar el paso de las ventajas a las desventajas debemos utilizar un conector de contraposición.


  • What public places. are theadvantages and disadvantages of free publictransport?

  • Shouldwelegalizedrugs? Argumentsfor and againstit

  • What are theargumentsfor and againstbanning smoking in public places?

Introducción/ Opening

Nowadays many people hold strong views about banning smoking in public places.

However, there are good arguments for and against.

Although many people think smoking in public places should not be allowed, there

Are both arguments for and against it.

In some countries, people are not allowed to smoke in public places. However,

Some people think that goverments should not ban it. There are arguments both

Against and in favour of banning smoking in public places.

Como podéis observar, en ninguna de ellas se da una opinión personal.


Desarrollo/ Body public places.

There are several arguments in favour of banning smoking in public places.

Firstly, some people claim that they feel more comfortable and healthier if there

are not people smoking around them because they do not inhale the smoke of

other people´s cigarettes. In addition, children can not see people smoke, which

is really positive to prevent children from smoking in the future. On the other

hand, some smokers argue that goverments should let people smoke in public

areas because they think they are not damaging anybody but themselves. What´s

more, they feel that it would be an act of limiting freedom.

No se dan opiniones personales, sino argumentos razonados de otras personas que se oyen en nuestra sociedad. Fijaos en los conectores que se usan para introducir argumentos de la misma naturaleza (Firstly, In addition, What´s more) y aquellos

Para introducir argumentos contrarios (On the other hand)


Conclusión / Closing public places.

In conclusion, banning smoking cigarettes in public places has advantages and

disadvantages . However, I believe that goverments should prohibit smoking

in public areas although that means a restriction of our freedom

El autor da una opinión clara y coherente sobre el tema. Aquí es donde debes dar tu opinión sin olvidar el conector de conclusión y el de opinión.


Phrases public places.fromthetext

My phrases


Question nº 3

  • People can lead a healthier, longerlifebyhaving a pet.

  • have a healthierlifeand livelongerbyhaving a pet

  • havehealthbenefitsbyowning a pet

  • reduce stress iftheyhave a pet

  • improvetheirhealthbykeeping a pet

  • b) Loyalty and attractiveappearanceare somecharacteristics of pets

  • c) In most western countriesthetwomost popular petshavebeencats

  • and dogs

  • themost popular pets are cats and dogs

  • themostcommon/usual pets are cats and dogs

  • d) A highpercentage of petownerswithsevereheartproblemshadn´tdied

  • whohadcriticalheartproblems, hadn´t

  • died.

  • withcriticalheartproblems, hadn´tdied


PETS public places.

Question nº 5

5. According to the text, pets have been proved to be a source of health

for their owners. Can you summarize the main facts that support

this idea?

Step 0


“ Thereappearstobestrongevidencethathaving a pet can help

a person lead a longer, healthierlife. In a study of 92 people

withsevereheartproblems, within a year, 11 of the 29 without

petshaddied, butonly 3 of the 52 whohadpets. A recentstudy

concludedthatowninga petcanreducetheriskof a heartattack

by 2% and thatpets are betterthanmedication in reducingblood



  • Step public places. 1

  • Linkers

  • Parafrasear la pregunta

  • Eliminar información repetida

  • Las mismas estructuras con otras palabras

Accordingtotheinformation in thetext, there are severalfactsthat

supportthe idea thatpetshavebeenprovedtobe a source of health

fortheirowners. Firstly, in a research of 92 subjectswithcriticalhealth

problems, in a year, 11 of the 29 whohadnota pethaddied. However,

only 3 of the 59 whoownedpetshaddied. (a lowpercentage of pet

ownnershaddied in a year ) Secondly, anotherreviewclaimedthatkeeping

a petcoulddecreasethedanger of a heartattackby 2%. Finally, thesame

studyalsoconcludedthatpets are more efficientthanmedicationin orderto reduce bloodpressure


  • Step public places. 2 (Advanced)

  • Parafrasear

  • Síntesis/resumen

  • Explicación

Accordingtotheinformation in thetext, there are severalfactsthat

defendthenotionthatpetshavebeenprovedtobe a source of healthfor

theirowners. Twoimportantstudiesdemonstratethis. Firstly, 56 per cent

of petowners reduce hisdanger of dying of a heartattack. Secondly,

othersurveyalsoclaimedthatkeeping a petcoulddecreasethatriskby 2%.

Finally, thesameresearchalsoshowedthatpets are more efficientthan

medication in orderto reduce bloodpressure. Therefore, it has been

demonstratedthatifyoukeep a pet, you can improveyourhealth


Question public places. nº 6

See “For and against essay”

Nowadays many people strongly agree or disagree on this question.

However, there are good arguments for having a pet /

against having a pet

A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of having a pet