Ocean Tracking Network (OTN) Northwest Atlantic Arena Outline: Description of OTN receiver arrays in NW Atlantic Gulf of Maine: GoMOOS network Halifax Line “acoustic curtain”: Scotian Shelf Minas Passage: Parrsboro “curtain”; tidal turbine array Cabot Strait Line “curtain”: Gulf of St. Lawrence Telemetry networks in NW Atlantic: USA and Canada Summary of Detections: 2005 – 2010 Preliminary results NSERC Strategic Network Grant
GoMOOS Network Starting in 2005 • receivers originally deployed on 11 GoMOOS buoys (now 8 buoys) • ~10,000 detections of 63 acoustic tags from 11 different projects • species include: Atlantic salmon, Atlantic sturgeon, alewives, striped bass, winter flounder, and spiny dog fish • buoys maintained by University of Maine (Neal Pettigrew)
Starting in 2007 • Originally aligned with Halifax Section (AZMP) to relate to environmental factors • Has undergone severaliterations so far to account for potential fishing hazards • Excessive delays in delivery of hydrophones and releases • Present status: 37 stations • Three acoustic Doppler profilers (ADCP) span the Nova Scotian Current • Benthic Pods (BPs), evenlyspaced along the Line, provide hydrographic properties at the bottom Halifax Line ADCP VR4/BPInterim
DFO Observer Data 2002-07: • Vessel tracks from silver hake fishery indicate intense otter trawl (bottom) activity concentrated in Emerald Basin • Confined to deep water (depth >~200 m) Halifax Line Moorings:Silver Hake Fishery Submarine cables Vessel tracks Halifax Line
Starting in 2007 • After further discussions with the pollock fishers, additional adjustments to the Line are under consideration: • Request that the line divert east or west to avoid the cap of Sambro Bank (favoured site for pollock fishery). Westward path is shorter. • Diversion from fishing zone 4X to 4W is requested to avoid the pollock fishery altogether there (4W closed to pollock fishery) Halifax Line (cont.) ADCP VR4/BPInterim
Starting in 2010 • Minas Passage serves as a conduit for many migrating fish species which transit from Minas Basin to a range of destinations on the East Coast of NA • MP also has the greatest resource potential for tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) in Canada • Two arrays in MP are designed to: 1) monitor the passage of migratory species [OTN], and 2) detect fish behaviour in the vicinity of a demonstration turbine [Acadia U.] Minas Passage
Cabot Strait/Strait of Canso Array Starting in 2009 • Cabot Strait is the major gateway from the North Atlantic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and many species (e.g. cod, eel, salmon, grey seal) pass through it on a regular basis • Initial deployments cover the gap between Cape Breton and St. Paul Island, but completion of the line will require challenging deployments in waters deeper than 500m. • In addition, a small array has been placed in the Strait of Canso, a narrow passage separating Cape Breton from mainland Nova Scotia, which may be a migration route for American eel.
Grassroots Telemetry Networks in USA • Coast of Maine Passive Acoustic Sensor System (CoM-PASS) • Statewide initiative to assess fish movement in coastal Maine • Penobscot Telemetry Group – 140 unit network • Multi-species, multi-agency from Upland to Headlands of Penobscot • Atlantic salmon (smolt and adult), Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon, striped bass, alewives, sea lamprey- survival and behavior: dams, rivers, estuary, and bay • ACT - Atlantic Cooperative Telemetry Network • Collaborative approach to telemetry data exchange on US east coast • History: 2005 - 12 researchers 2008 - 31 researchers; >2200 shared transmitter codes; add FACT • 2010 –62 researchers; >3700 shared transmitter codes
Grassroots Telemetry Networks in Canada • Atlantic Salmon Federation • Atlantic salmon smolt tagging in Bay of Fundy • Fisheries & Oceans Canada (DFO) - species specialists • G. Lacroix – Atlantic salmon in Bay of Fundy • R. Bradford – Atlantic salmon in upper BoF • S. Campana – cod in GoSL; dogfish on the Scotian Shelf • P. Amiro – Atlantic salmon smolts in LaHave River • OTN NSERC Strategic Network Grant • I. Flemming – Atlantic salmon migration pathways • J. Dodson – American eel migrations • M. Dadswell – Atlantic sturgeon migration and tidal power impacts • D. Bowen – grey seals as bioprobes; cod in Gulf of St. Lawrence • Other Initiatives • M. Stokesbury – tuna (acoustic+satellite tracking)
Status on the Halifax Line: 28 July 2008 T1 Total of 34 Atlantic Salmon detected moving eastward, in transit from Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine, and Medway River, NS. (Tag data courtesy of NOAA, USGS, ASF and DFO) Most detections concentrated in mid-June (one in mid-May from NS) between 60m and 100m isobaths
Counter Currents vs Migration? N Status on the Halifax Line: 28 July 2008 E ADCP Monthly Mean Currents at T1 (100m isobath) JULY JUNE MAY Surface Mid-depth Most detections concentrated in mid-June between 60m and 100m isobaths T1 APRIL
NSERC Strategic Network Grant:Understanding Species Movements, Interactions, and Environmental Variability across Canada’s Three Oceans • Global perspective: 3 Arenas (Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic) • Atlantic Arena Projects I.1 Interdisciplinary Observing and Modelling Platform (Fennel, Sheng, Smith, Cullen, Taggart, Thompson) I.2.1 Atlantic Salmon: migration, distribution, oceanographic features (Fleming, Hatcher, Iverson) I.2.2 Estuarine and oceanic migrations of juvenile and reproductive stages of the American eel (Dodson, Castonguay) I.2.3 Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada: migratory behaviour and origin, and the potential for tidal power impacts (Dadswell, Stokesbury, Litvak) I.2.4 Grey seals as bioprobes: Predicting impacts on their ecosystems (Iverson, Bowen, Jonsen) I.2.5 Design principles for OTN and climate change impacts on leatherback turtle foraging and distribution (Mills Flemming, Jonsen, Bowen, Iverson)
NSERC Strategic Network Grant (cont):Goal: develop general purpose, observation and modelling platform that will provide reconstructions of time-varying, physical, biological and chemical conditions of the ocean, and forecast future states Specific Objectives: I.1 - integrate bottom pod, ADCP, glider for physical description of system - new optical products, acceleration metrics for different species (e.g. salmon) - model reconstruction of 3D, variable physical, biological and chemical state I.2.2 - key bio/phys/chem characteristics impacting growth, migration of American eel - how anthropogenic activities exacerbate precarious status of American eel I.2.3 - migratory behaviour of Atlantic sturgeon on Canada’s east coast - potential impacts of tidal power generation in Minas Passage on sturgeon I.2.4 - role of grey seals in Atlantic cod declineand salmon smoltmortality - role of ocean currents in seal movement and search/foraging behaviour - role of seasonal ocean variability in sex-specific habitat use by seals I.2.5 - model to predict probability of encounter between seals and tagged species - statistical methods for estimating encounter rates, movement, and survival - functional relationship between leatherback turtle movement and biophysical environment
Next Steps: • Complete deployments of Halifax and Cabot Strait Lines • Increase number of transmitter tags and species of interest • Relate detection patterns to environmental factors, including ecosystem indicators (NSERC SNG) • Increase transboundary data analysis and collaboration on Atlantic Salmon • ACT – Consider formalization of grassroots collaboration focusing on sturgeon researchers; examine and evaluate transboundary ramifications, and expand international cooperation through use of OTN database
Questions: What are the possible concerns/roadblocks to data sharing through the Dal/OTN database (e.g. security, IP violations)? How will ocean observations benefit the understanding/ interpretation of OTN data? Are physical observations only required, or full ecosystem characterization? Why? What roles do models play (e.g. retrospective hindcasts)? Is an hydrodynamic model only required, or full ecosystem? What are some means to establish successful management regimes using OTN technology and environmental observations? Is there a need to establish additional strategic OTN lines (e.g. New Jersey shelf, Duck North Carolina, Bay of Fundy, Florida)? How do we protect OTN hydrophone moorings, especially the “curtains” which are most vulnerable (e.g. “trawl-resistant” design, communication with fishers, etc.) What worries trackers most about sending data to Dal/OTN archive?