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Failing to plan is planning to fail

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  1. Failing to plan isplanning to fail Managing Product Design Projects

  2. Activity • Draw up a plan for your client project • Information included: • Tasks • Milestones • Duration • etc. • Use whatever format and graphics you deem suitable

  3. Discussion • Raise your hand if you have the following elements in your drawing • Blocks / Sub-tasks • Arrows / Flows • Branches / If-then Decisions • Cycles / Iterations • What tools did you used to represent your project planning? • What are the characteristics of project ARCHITECTURE NET FLOW VENN

  4. Project Essentials • A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service (在一定时间内为完成某一独特的产品或服务所进行的一次性努力) • Characteristics of project • Objective (目标性) • Temporary (一次性) • Unique (独特性) • progressively elaboration (逐渐明晰) • interrelated activities (依存关系) • consumes resources (消耗资源)

  5. Fast Safe Good Cheap Project Essentials • All projects are a sub-task of bigger projects, e.g.((((Research)SD2455)HD-PIT)Live happily) • Key issues in project planning • Time (快) • Cost (省) • Quality (好) • Risk (稳)

  6. Project Management Process Do the right thing Do things right Project Preparation Project Planning Project Execution Project Adaptation

  7. Project Planning - Resources

  8. Resources and its management • Identify resource requirement (designers, engineers, equipment, etc.) • Identify resource constrains (project on-hand, office hours, shipping, etc.) • Identify critical chain • Frequent error: Fail to identify resource limits at initial planning stage

  9. Common methods to optimise resources • Parallel execution of identical task (brain-storming, group sketching) • Parallel execution of unrelated tasks (PowerPoint making and report writing) • Staggered execution of tasks (laser-cutting and putty surfacing) • Speculative execution (mould preparation before design confirmation) • Delay execution • Frequent error: Use crashing alone to meet deadline

  10. Speculative execution “Smartphone cases are now a $436 million-a-year business. Some manufacturers make bad investments based on leaked designs” - Bloomberg Businessweek Oct. 13 2011

  11. A B C A:0 B:10 C;20 A B C A B C A:10 B:15 C;20 Pitfalls of Blind Multi-tasking • Lost of attention • Difficult to track overall progress • Switching cost • Task with higher priority suffers 0 10 20 30

  12. Project Planning - Risks

  13. Risks and its management • Internal risk • Solution not found • Incorrect assumption (client’s taste, consumer behaviour, etc.) • Resource unavailable (people, equipment, vendor) • External risk • Specification change (competitor product launch, technology breakthrough, short-supply) • Deliverable change (strategy change) • Stalled confirmation • Frequent error: Fail to weight risk and benefit, select direction base on risky assumption

  14. Delivery Time • The two most common types of failure for product design project are • Design rejection • Deadline slip • In real-world business we determine delivery date by the quality and quantity of deliverables • In student design project we determine the quality and quantity of deliverables by delivery date

  15. Uncertainty and Risk If you want to increase the chance of on-time completion by 1%, the safety buffer must increase much more than 1% Track Record 50% 80% 0 10 20 Time Safety Buffer

  16. Pitfalls of Safety Buffer • Safety Buffer increase dramatically with the decrease of acceptable risk • Bad track records affect safety buffer more than good records do • In a group project, each level of management will add extra safety buffer to protect their own interest • Students’ Syndrome – a tendency to fight for safety buffer and start at slow pace • In a series of dependent tasks, time gain by early finish cannot compensate the buffer lost due to delay

  17. Common Methods to Reduce Risks • Vigorous project preparation • Put client into the process • Charge by time or by phase • Charge per design proposal • Schedule to date of confirmation • Sharing risk with partners (reward/penalty clause) • Minimise lost (non-refundable deposit) • Frequent error: Look sideward but not forward for timing cue

  18. Project Preparation and Planning Checklist • Determine the deliverables • Identify resource and time limits • Identify risks • ‘Make or buy’ decision • Calculate delivery time • Determine project phases and check-points according to risks • Calculate cost • Frequent error: Fail to re-examine schedule after every check-points

  19. Activity • Work as a group, list the essential resources for this client project and the risks you may encounter • Consolidate your Client Project plans and make a revised version • Optimise the resources and minimise the risk

  20. Project Planning Tools

  21. Discussion • What tools did you used to plan your previous projects? • Does your tools help you to consider resources and risk issues? ARCHITECTURE NET FLOW VENN

  22. Project Management Tools • Gantt Chart • Easy to learn, visually rich • No explicit task relationships • Probabilistic • Critical Path Method • Reveal interaction of branched tasks • Explicit task relationships • Deterministic Adapted from: Network Planning Techniques: CPM-PERT, ESD.36J, MIT

  23. Problem with Traditional Project Management • Is inflexible, “changing the plan” considered a failure • Does not think of projects in a probabilistic sense • “Hostage” to existing project management software • In a reactive mode – no “early warning” systems • Based on pure reductionism • Does not acknowledge the existence of iterations

  24. Planned iteration Caused by needs to improve things we don’t fully understand To solve the ‘chicken and eggs’ problem Know where these iterations occur, but not necessarily how much Should be facilitated by good design methods, tools, and coordination Unplanned iteration Caused by errors and/or unforeseen problems Generally cannot predict whether and which unplanned iterations will occur Should be minimised by careful planning and use of tools (e.g. DSM) Two Types of Iteration

  25. Task Sequencing Adapted from: Lecture 3, System Project Management, ESD.36J, MIT

  26. Unplanned iteration 10 tasks in SD2454 • Write design brief • Identify stakeholders and investigation • Initial design ideas and developments • Finalize the idea • Engineering design • Preparation of 3D solid model • Preparation of detailed working drawings • Design for manufacture and assembly • Design for environment • Final design Planned iteration

  27. Design Structure Matrix Adapted from: Lecture 3, System Project Management, ESD.36J, MIT

  28. Design Structure Matrix Adapted from: Lecture 3, System Project Management, ESD.36J, MIT

  29. Spiral Product Design Process Adapted from: Lecture 11, System Project Management, ESD.36J, MIT

  30. Believe in planning but not the plan Failing to plan is planning to fail And,