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the intro.

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  1. A Wastewater Treatment, Reuse and Outreach Program at the Autonomous University of Benito Juarez in Oaxaca, Mexicoby Tressie Word, M.S.Winzler & Kelly Consulting Engineers

  2. the intro. • Concept • Context • Outreach • Technology • Lessons learned • Outcomes • Next steps

  3. the concept. Build capacity in natural wastewater treatment, reuse and watershed management in the Oaxaca Valley Capacity building is the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy, legal frameworks & institutional development; including community participation, development of resources & strengthening of managerial systems (UNDP, 1991). • A long-term, continuing process that involves all stakeholders

  4. the approach.

  5. Humboldt State University (HSU) Universidad Autonómica de Benito Juárez de Oaxaca (UABJO) Associated organizations Dr. Robert Gearheart, HSU Professor Peter Haase, Principal Engineer, Fall Creek Engineering ~ HSU Volunteer Tressie Word, Staff Engineer, Winzler & Kelly ~ HSU Lecturer Administration Chemistry Department Faculty, Students & Staff Institute of Nature and Society of Oaxaca Rio Salado Watershed Committee Federal, State and Local Water Commissions Oaxaca Secretary of Health the players.

  6. Current Sources UABJO Private Individuals Private Companies State of Oaxaca Potential Sources - National Water Commission of Mexico (CNA) National Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT) Secretary of Health of Oaxaca (SSO) Secretary of Social Development of Oaxaca (SEDESOL) - Inter-American Development Bank - North American Development Bank the funds.

  7. the specifics. • Establish local need & engagement • Pursue funding • Outreach program • Monitoring & recording wastewater data • Educational, technical & operational guidance • Development of a technical support network • International exchange opportunities • Workshop series • Four annual participative workshops • On-campus demonstration facility • Natural wastewater treatment & reclamation

  8. the context.

  9. the status of water and wastewater in Mexico. • Over-exploitation of water resources (INEGI, 2007) • Insufficient or lacking wastewater sanitation measures (CNA, 2004) • Infrastructure • Operation & maintenance • Monitoring

  10. (CNA, 2004)

  11. (CNA, 2004)20% to 35% of wastewater istreated in Mexico (INEGI, 2007)

  12. the effects. Environment • Contamination of potable water resources (Briscoe, 1993) • Ecosystem imbalances (Welch & Lindell, 1992) • Pollution of soils & agricultural produce (INEGI, 2007)

  13. the effects. Human Health • Pathogens cause gastro-intestinal infections, typhoid, cholera & dysentery • Toxic chemicals from industry, agriculture & urban areas cause harmful effects

  14. the status of wastewater in Oaxaca de Juárez, Oaxaca. • Population 256,130 • Activated sludge treatment (still starting-up) • In the very recent past, most wastewater was discharged directly to rivers (Atoyac, Salado & Jaltlaco) & streets http://www.tomzap.com/coaxaca.html

  15. the status of wastewater in communities surrounding Oaxaca de Juárez.

  16. the UABJO project goals. • Goals • On-campus infrastructure improvements • Ecological wastewater treatment & and reuse • Water quality monitoring capacity • Improve water & wastewater conditions in the Oaxaca Valley • Enhance community relations • Support applied research efforts • Expand international exchange opportunities

  17. the workshop participants. Collaborative efforts involving governments, private firms & civil society strongly support project success (UNWWAP, 2006) • Government • Water authorities • Industry • Academia • Plant managers & operators • Private sector • Concerned citizens Workshop 1

  18. the workshop foci. • Workshop 1: Natural Wastewater Treatment System Science & Design • Workshop 2: Watershed and Wastewater Management Permitting, Funding Sources, and Laws • Workshop 3: Sustainable Technologies and Monitoring for Watershed Protection, Wastewater Treatment and Reuse • Workshop 4: Watershed and Wastewater Management Technique Start-up, Troubleshooting, Operation and Maintenance

  19. the demonstration project. Goal: Create a natural, simple, inexpensive, low-maintenance, energy efficient, wastewater treatment & reclamation project

  20. the technology. • Filtration • Storage • Subsurface Irrigation • Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket • Facultative Lagoon • Free Surface Wetlands

  21. the technology.

  22. upflow anaerobic sludge blanket front view side view

  23. the technology. • Meets secondary treatment effluent standards for water reuse (Wendland et al, 2006) • Demands low energy • Produces little sludge • Requires simple operation & maintenance

  24. the permits. • UABJO Project • Permit Requirements Waived • Autonomous University • Pilot project • General Process • Environmental Impact Report • Design approval process • Permit required from the National Water Commission

  25. the construction.

  26. the team. Final Design & Construction

  27. site visit: feb 2007.

  28. site visit: aug 2007.

  29. the final product.

  30. the outreach. Guendulain

  31. Tlacalula

  32. Tlacalula

  33. Mitla

  34. Huayapam

  35. Huayapam

  36. the challenges. • Political climate • Cultural differences • Communication • Coordination • Funding • Regulatory enforcement • Weather

  37. the lessons. • Employ sincere cultural & political sensitivity • Changes in government & administration have broad, immediate implications • Anticipate emergent events & weak points • Maintain long-term presence • Support solid local engagement in project components • Apply flexible, transparent, engaged problem solving practices • Provide appropriately complex operation, maintenance & evaluation guidelines

  38. the outcomes. • On-campus wetland wastewater treatment, reuse & demonstration system • Establishment of a university wastewater outreach program • Local information network on wastewater treatment technology • Local wastewater monitoring program

  39. the outcomes. • The implementation of two constructed wetland wastewater treatment plants stemmed from the first workshop • Matatlan (~9,000 Inhabitants) • Tlalixtac (~10,000 Inhabitants) • The workshop series continues

  40. the future. • Provide a venue to create an Oaxaca Committee for Water, Environmental and Health • Support surrounding communities to implement appropriate water and wastewater projects • Expand UABJO international exchange opportunities • Develop of a local wastewater technical support network • Continue technical support for UABJO demonstration and outreach programs

  41. some resources. • The Appropedia Foundation: Living library of sustainable development projects in the developing world • http://www.appropedia.org • Institute of Nature and Society of Oaxaca: Studies, publications and outreach in Oaxaca, Mexico on watershed management and sustainable development • http://insooaxaca.com • My email: tressieword@w-and-k.com

  42. ¿questions?