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Technical Report Writing. Lecture no. 3 Session Spring 2013 Instructor: Engr. Arifa Saher. Attention grabber. Begin with an attention grabber. Startling information

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technical report writing

Technical Report Writing

Lecture no. 3

Session Spring 2013

Instructor: Engr. ArifaSaher

attention grabber
Attention grabber
  • Begin with an attention grabber.
  • Startling information
    • This information must be true and verifiable, and it doesn't need to be totally new to your readers. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the point you wish to make.If you use a piece of startling information, follow it with a sentence or two of elaboration.
  • Anecdote
    • An anecdote is a story that illustrates a point.Be sure your anecdote is short, to the point, and relevant to your topic. This can be a very effective opener for your essay, but use it carefully.
slide3

Dialogue

    • An appropriate dialogue does not have to identify the speakers, but the reader must understand the point you are trying to convey. Use only two or three exchanges between speakers to make your point.Follow dialogue with a sentence or two of elaboration.
  • Summary Information
    • A few sentences explaining your topic in general terms can lead the reader gently to your thesis. Each sentence should become gradually more specific, until you reach your thesis.
slide4

If the attention grabber was only a sentence or two, add one or two more sentences that will lead the reader from your opening to your thesis statement.

  • Finish the paragraph with your thesis statement.
essay question italy on the eve of 1860 has often been described as an unlikely nation why
Essay Question: Italy on the eve of 1860 has often been described as an unlikely nation. Why?
  • On the eve of 1860 the word Italy described not a nation, but a geographical area.The peninsula was split into eight separate states, all independent of one another. Economically, while the whole of Europe seemed to be surging ahead, Italy was lagging behind.At this time, Italy was seen as an unlikely nation because of the many obstacles that lay in the way of unification. The main obstacles were the dislike and distrust between the states and the "slowness of the great bulk of Italians to accept or even comprehend the idea of Italy" (Mack Smith,1968: 2). There was also a lack of planning and common goals amongst the minority of the population that supported and were prepared to fight for a unified country. This was exacerbated by the disagreement and dislike between the leaders of Il Risorgimento, the Italian independence movement.
  • http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/essay/4bii.html
essay topic an introduction to fiber optics technology
Essay Topic: An Introduction to Fiber Optics Technology
  • Throughout time, speed and efficiency in the telecommunications industry has progressed at a rapid pace due to fiber optic technology. In 1979, AT&T revolutionized the telecommunications industry by producing a medium for data transmission which used light, called fiber optic cable. This medium created a bandwidth of 44.736 Mbps and could multiplex 672 trunk circuits onto one fiber (Cole, 2000). However, this invention was only the beginning of a great addition to telecommunications, one that would change the industry forever. 
paragraphs
Paragraphs
  • A well written paragraph displays a certain logic
    • Has a tight structure
    • Leads and guides the reader through the development of its content.
  • Topic sentence: is the signal to the reader that identifies what the paragraph is about.
example
Example
  • The most sparkling stars of wireless networking technology today is IEEE 802.11b. The 802.11b wireless networking has enjoyed a rapid increase in adoption in enterprise settings and in educational and institutional networks. More recently, particularly in the past year as adapter and access point prices have lowered dramatically, 802.11b wireless network products have been making inroads into home and SOHO applications. Initially, the demand for 802.11b in the home was driven by people who used a wireless-equipped notebook computer at work, and then took it home and wanted the same freedom from wired connection there too. As prices for wireless components came down, and as home networking to share broadband Internet connections increased, 802.11b was and still is the go-to choice, even in households to which no one comes home with a wireless-enabled notebook from work. 
example1
Example
  • Intel Corporation integrated, "wireless-Internet-on-a-chip" technology could enable a new era of wireless Internet-access products with extensive battery life and greater processing power. The new research chips feature logic (microprocessor), flash memory and analog communications circuits on a single piece of silicon built using a single manufacturing process. Each of these types of circuits is traditionally manufactured on separate process technologies in different factories. Chips produced on the new process may be up to five times more powerful than those used in today
principles of paragraph development
Principles of Paragraph Development
  • A paragraph is a sequence of content-related sentences that develop an idea in some detail.
  • It usually contains a topic sentence. This sentence serves to guide both writer and reader through the paragraph’s content. It can occur anywhere in the paragraph , though it usually comes at the beginning.
  • In some cases, a paragraph may not have a topic sentence, developing instead a topic idea stated in preceding paragraph.
slide11
Paragraphs should be unified; each should develop one particular aspect of an essay’s main thesis.
  • It should be coherent; the sentences in each should be logically connected by transitional words and phrases, by repetition of key terms, and/or by repetition of sentence structure
use of transitional words and phrases
Use of transitional words and phrases

Connectors

  • Addition: and, also, in addition to, further, furthermore, similarly, not only/but also, both/and, moreover, either/or, another, like
  • Contrast: but, contrary to, yet, still, in opposition to, however, notwithstanding, although, whereas, while, neither/nor, on the other hand
    • Example: for example, that is
  • Time: when, as, already, then, after, afterwards
slide13
Sequence: next, then, soon, after, afterwards, following, since, first, second, finally
  • Result: thus, therefore, since, so, because, for, consequence
example of sentence structure repetition
Example of sentence structure repetition
  • Wireless Internet gives emerging wireless service providers a powerful opportunity to differentiate themselves from their competition based on the ability to rapidly create and deliver profitable next-generation Wireless Internet services while maximizing the efficiency of their networks. Wireless Internet brings value to service providers by: helping generate profits, quickly, reducing the time required to design and deploy new Wireless Internet services. It's enabling new revenues quickly and assuring a positive return on their network investment. Wireless Internet is also improving performance, at reduced costs by facilitating the fast identification and repair of network faults, the proactive optimization of network performance, and the acceleration of the service-provisioning process. Nortel Networks is also Evolving and growing with service providers' needs by supporting multiple wireless network technologies, spanning multiple wireless-network generations, and building cross-domain management capabilities on a single, scalable, and open platform. 
conclusion
Conclusion
  • There is quite a difference between ending an essay and merely stopping it.
  • Ending or conclusion is the final section of an essay.
  • Classic essay structure is that the conclusion begins narrowly and ends expansively (Payne, 1965). It starts with a specific summary of your key points and arguments.Next, your thesis statement is restated, in the form shaped by your arguments. Finally, the conclusion is closed by a final statement that imparts a generalized understanding of your essay topic.
question to answer
Question to answer
  • How effectively have you provided an insight into your purpose for writing the essay? Is there a statement or implication of the paper’s significance for you?
  • What is the nature of the conclusion; a summary, a call to action, a reiteration of the thesis?
example robotics essay
Example: Robotics essay
  • This essay summarizes the current state of robotics, and previews the findings of a robotics road-mapping effort currently under way.
  • A national initiative in robotics would address many national priorities. It would ensure future competitiveness and hence employment in a rapidly growing sector. It would directly affect the effectiveness of our nation's military and the security of the homeland. It would enrich our lives by bringing outstanding educational opportunities, good jobs, greater safety, better health care, personal security, and a level of independence and freedom that only our wealthiest citizens presently enjoy.
3g sophistication guaranteed
3G: Sophistication Guaranteed?
  • Telecommunications evolution is undergoing a rapid vamp to the future; the evolution is almost exponential, from the analog types to 2Gs and then finally the latest mobile innovation the 3G technology. The 3G techie is the latest on-stream line of communications which offers advanced voice communications and high-speed data connectivity, with wireless Internet access, mobile data applications and high multimedia content. The 3G model embodies true sophistication in terms of mobile technology but why was this phrase used to describe it? To answer this an investigation of the roots and processes of 3G would be required.
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Looking at the positive side of things, the situation of 3G consumer ratio would not always be the same. Like all things, needs change, and observing the evolution of mobile technology from the rustic analog model to the latest 3G types, one can only predict that consumer needs would be inclined towards technological enhancement and that technological enhancement would be better suited to the needs of the consumer.

What is more is that it needs change, mobile techie trends may also change. The 3G model is now currently being improvised from more than 3G to 4G.

4G Technology: Super-satisfaction guaranteed?

Only time will tell.

george orwell s you and the atomic bomb
George Orwell’s You and the Atomic Bomb
  • Considering how likely we all are to be blown to pieces by it within the next five years, the atomic bomb has not roused so much discussion as might have been expected. The newspapers have published numerous diagrams, not very helpful to the average man, of protons and neutrons doing their stuff, and there has been much reiteration of the useless statement that the bomb ‘ought to be put under international control.’ But curiously little has been said, at any rate in print, about the question that is of most urgent interest to all of us, namely: ‘How difficult are these things to manufacture?
conclusion2
Conclusion
  • Had the atomic bomb turned out to be something as cheap and easily manufactured as a bicycle or an alarm clock, it might well have plunged us back into barbarism, but it might, on the other hand, have meant the end of national sovereignty and of the highly-centralised police state. If, as seems to be the case, it is a rare and costly object as difficult to produce as a battleship, it is likelier to put an end to large-scale wars at the cost of prolonging indefinitely a ‘peace that is no peace’.
reviewing
Reviewing
  • Get some distance: Give yourself enough time to let the paper sit at least 24 hours before you begin revising
  • Revise for meaning: Decide whether you’ve kept the promises your focus statemt and theisis sentence made.
  • Revise for audience: try to read from your reader’s perspective, or ask someone else to read your essay from that perspective
slide23
Revise for structure. Look at the overall structure or shape of the essay first, then at the structure of each paragraph.
  • Revise for sentences. Consider the variety of your sentences, including sentence type and length.
  • Revise for words: Make sure your words are accurate and appropriate.
  • Edit: After revision strategies, proofread your paper to correct problems in spelling, grammar, and mechanics.
discursive essay
Discursive Essay
  • Is an expositive/argumentative piece of writing which discusses a particular issue, situation or problem. There are basically three types of discursive essays: a) For and Against; b) Opinion; and c) Solutions to Problems.
  • We would be discussing the Solution to problems category
problem solution essays
Problem/solution Essays
  • It has mainly three parts
    • Problem
    • Causes
    • Solution
  • Order needs to be maintained
example drug abuse problems and solutions
Example: Drug Abuse: Problems and Solutions
  • Drug abuse is rife in many countries. Billions of dollars are spent internationally preventing drug use, treating addicts, and fighting drug-related crime. Although drugs threaten many societies, their effects can also be combated successfully. This essay looks at some of the effects of drug use on society, and suggests some solutions to the problem. 

Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot function as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and eventually require expensive treatment or hospitalization. The second effect is on crime. Huge police resources are needed to fight smuggling and dealing. Criminal gangs and mafia underworlds develop with the money from drugs. 

slide27
However, the menace of drugs can be fought. Education is the first battle. Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can make avoid this problem. A second approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to enforce the law. However the main target should be the user. Families and counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at their children and help them to Jobs are needed to give people a role in society.

In conclusion, although the problem of drugs may seem impossible to eliminate, there are concrete steps that can be taken to weaken the hold of drugs on society. The danger from drugs is too great to ignore. 

assignment no 2
Assignment no. 2
  • Select a topic of your choice for an essay
    • Using one of the five techniques for finding something to say, make a first draft
    • Write your thesis statement
    • Using any of the five techniques for planning the essay, make its outline.
subject verb agreement
Subject verb Agreement
  • The laser excites electrons.
  • The lasers excite electrons.
rules
Rules
  • Rule 1. Add an s to a verb when the subject is singular. Do not add an s to a verb when the subject is plural.
  • Or stated another way: Either the subject or the verb will have an s.
  • The laser excites electrons.
  • The lasers excite electrons.
slide32

Rule 2: in most present-tense sentences, either the subject or the verb will have an s, but not both.

  • The men supervise the test.
  • The man supervises the test.
slide33

Rule 3. changing the verb to the past tense eliminates the agreement problem.

  • The engineers supervised the test.
  • The engineer supervised the test.
slide34

Rule 4. changing into present (-ing) or past (ed) participle form does not eliminate the problem, since helping verbs also have s forms.

  • The men were supervising the test.
  • The man was supervising the test.
special case 1
Special case 1
  • Sometimes a sentence begins with an indefinite word such as there, here, or where. In sentences like this, the subject will come after the verb, and the verb must agree with what comes after it.
  • There is an illustration.
  • There are two illustrations.
special case 2
Special case 2
  • Compound subjects joined by and are considered plural.
  • The scientist and the researcher agree.
  • In sentences with subjects joined by or or nor, the verb will agree with the closer subject.
  • Neither the scientist nor the researchers agree.
  • Neither the researchers nor the scientist agrees.
special case 3
Special case 3
  • When the verb is a part of a negative contraction, the verb must still follow the s form rule.
  • He doesn’t like commuting to work.
  • They don’t like commuting to work.
sentence combining
Sentence combining
  • The laser beam is light.
  • The light is a special kind.
  • The light is intense.
  • It differs from ordinary light.
  • The laser beam is a special kind of intense light that differs from ordinary light.
prepositions
Prepositions
  • Prepositions are words that show relationship between two or more words.
prepositional phrases
Prepositional phrases
  • A propositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with the next noun (or pronoun) or series of nouns (or pronouns).
  • In the board
  • For each board
  • Note: the noun at the end of a prepositional phrase is never the subject of the sentence.
prepositional phrases and subject verb agreement
Prepositional phrases and subject verb agreement
  • The leaders of our company wants to expand
  • The leaders of our company want to expand.
  • The values of power are measured in watts.
  • The value of power is measure in watts.
pronouns
Pronouns
  • A pronoun is often defined as a word which can be used instead of a noun.  For example, instead of saying John is a student, the pronoun he can be used in place of the noun John and the sentence becomes 
  • He is a student.
vs noun
Vs. Noun
  • unlike nouns, personal pronouns sometimes have different forms for masculine/male, feminine/female and neuter  (he-she-it). 
  • Also unlike nouns, personal pronouns have different forms depending on if  they act as subjects or objects (he-him, she-her).  
  • A subject is a word which does an action and usually comes before the verb, and an object is a word that receives an action and usually comes after the verb. 
    • Yesterday Susan called her mother.  
  • The form of a personal pronoun also changes according to what person is referred to.  Person is used here as a grammar word and means: 1st person: or the self (I, me, we), 2nd person: or the person spoken to (you), 3rd person: or the person spoken about (he, she, him, her, they, them).
slide45
A pronoun takes the place of

a noun 

a preposition 

an adjective 

a verb 

a conjunction

 Which is not a subject pronoun?

we 

it 

they 

her 

you

Which is not a plural pronoun?

you 

us 

themselves 

it 

we

Which is not a possessive pronoun?

her 

his 

yours 

mine 

theirs

The form of the intensifying pronoun is the same as the _______ pronoun.

object 

possessive 

reflexive 

subject 

interrogative

Which is not a 3rd person pronoun?

themselves 

it 

his 

they 

you

Quiz
slide46
 What is the form of  the 1st person plural object pronoun?

my 

ours 

us 

we 

I

What is the form of  the 3rd person singular feminine subject pronoun?

they 

mine 

She

her 

it

What is the form of  the 2nd person singular possessive pronoun?

she 

ours 

we 

his 

yours

What is the form of  the 1st person singular reflexive pronoun?

they 

myself 

hers 

itself 

our