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Technical Report Writing COMSATS Institute of Information Technology WAH • Course Coordinator: Muhammad Ayub Attari firstname.lastname@example.org • Lecture: Presentation/ Oral Speeches
Giving Speeches and Oral Presentations
Types of speeches • Extempore speech • Oral presentation
Presentation • A well preplanned speech • Knowing the subject of the speech • Knowing the expected audience • Knowing the occasion and time tenure
Objectives of today’s discussion • Illustrate how planning speeches differs from planning written documents. • Describe how to organize presentations and speeches. • Explain the tasks involved in developing a speech. • Discuss using visuals in oral presentations. • Discuss what is involved in designing effective presentation visuals. • Explain ways to overcome anxiety.
Three-Step Process forOral Presentations • Plan your speech or presentation • Write your speech or presentation • Complete your speech or presentation
Reasons for Giving a Speech To inform To motivate To persuade To entertain
Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Writing Speechesand Presentations Explain what happens in each step of organizing your speech: • Define your idea • Limit your scope • Choose your approach • Prepare an outline • Choose an appropriate style
Developing Your Speech Introduction Your introduction should • Arouse audience interest • Build credibility • Preview the presentation
Building the Bodyof Your Speech • Connect your ideas by • Using transitional words between sentences and paragraphs • Captivate your audience by • Relating your subject to audience’s needs • Using clear, vivid language • Explaining the relationship between your subject and familiar ideas
Closing Your Speech • Restate your main points. • Emphasize what you want your audience to do or think. • Describe the next steps if the speech requires action of others. • End on a positive note. • Provide for a question-and-answer period, if appropriate.
Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Types of Presentation Visuals When would each of the following visuals be most effective: Handouts Slides Chalkboards Flipcharts Whiteboards Electronic presentations Overheads
Features of an Electronic Presentation • Templates • Sorters • Animation • Multimedia • Links • Handouts • Speaker’s notes
Designing Effective Visuals • Limit each visual to one idea. • Illustrate your main points, not your entire presentation. • Use borders, points, and boxes to highlight important information. • Use clip art sparingly to add color and excitement. • Avoid visuals that conflict with your verbal message.
Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Let’s Discuss Delivering Your Message Under what circumstances would each of the following be most appropriate? Memorizing Reading Speaking from notes Impromptu speaking
Think positively. Prepare more material than necessary. Rehearse. Arrange your notes and visuals before you speak. Take deep breaths before you begin. Memorize the opening statement. Use visuals for assistance and audience interest. Use nonverbals for emphasis. Overcoming Nervousness
Handling Questions • Focus on the questioner. • Respond appropriately. • Maintain control. • Stay cool in the hot seat. • Encourage questions from the audience. • Conclude your speech positively and professionally.
Let’s Discuss Test Your Knowledge • What are the three steps in planning an oral presentation? • What is the purpose of defining the main idea of a speech? • Why do you have to limit your scope when planning a presentation? • What do you want to achieve with the introduction part of your speech? With the close of your speech? • What six types of visuals are commonly used in presentations?
Let’s Discuss Test Your Knowledge continued • What are five key rules for designing effective presentation visuals? • How does impromptu speaking differ from speaking from notes? • As a speaker, what nonverbal signals can you send to appear more confident? • What can speakers do to maintain control during the question-and-answer period? • Why is simplicity of organization important in oral communication?