NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

nurs 2410 unit 6 and 7 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7

play fullscreen
1 / 171
NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7
102 Views
Download Presentation
sef
Download Presentation

NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. NURS 2410 Unit 6 and 7 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College

  2. Objective 1 • Identify pathophysiology and nursing process of selected sensory/neurological system alterations inclusive of: • Visual, hearing, retinoblastoma (covered in onco unit), hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, muscular dystrophies, spinal cord injuries and systemic lupus

  3. Disorders of Eye • Visual disorders • Myopia • Astigmatism • Strabismus • Amblyopia

  4. Disorders of Eye • Visual disorders • Cataracts • Glaucoma • Retinoblastoma • Color blindness • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)

  5. Disorders of Ear • Otitis media • Otitis externa • Hearing impairment

  6. Figure 24-2 Of the three anatomic differences in the eustachian tube between adults and small children (shorter, wider, more horizontal), which do you think could cause more problems for the child and why? Answer: More horizontal. Small children who are bottle fed in a supine position have a greater probability of developing otitis media because the eustachian tube opens when the child sucks and the horizontal angle provides easy access to the middle ear. In older children the greater angle helps keep foreign substances and germs away from the middle ear.

  7. Disorders of Nose and Throat • Epistaxis • Nasopharyngitis • Sinusitis • Pharyngitis • Tonsillitis

  8. Vision Screening • 20/20 by age 6 or 7 (visual acuity) • Screening starts at well-child exams when cooperative (screening timing and frequency)

  9. Hearing Screening • Infant in hospital • Screening timing and frequency • Many states mandate • Observation for cues to hearing • Clinical manifestations

  10. Risk Factors • Chronic ear infections • Chronic fluid/effusion • Follow-up needed for hearing deficit

  11. Abnormalities of Eyes • Conjunctivitis • Bacterial • Antibiotic eye drops • Viral and allergic • Supportive care • Periorbital cellulitis • Oral or intravenous antibiotics

  12. Abnormalities of Eyes • Other disorders • Multiple types of treatments based on etiology • Occlusion therapy • Compensatory lenses • Surgery • Vision therapy • Refer to eye specialist

  13. Abnormalities of Ears • Otitis media • Antibiotic usage • Supportive care

  14. Figure 24-7 Acute otitis media is characterized by abrupt onset, pain, middle ear effusion, and inflammation. Note the injected vessels and altered shape of cone of light. See Chapter 7for a normal tympanic membrane. Source: Courtesy of Kevin Kavanagh, MD, FACS.

  15. Figure 24-8 Otitis media with effusion is noted on otoscopy by fluid line or air bubbles. Pneumatic otoscopy or tympanometry shows a nonmobile tympanic membrane. Note that the light reflex is not in the expected position due to a change in tympanic membrane shape from air bubbles. Where would you expect to see the light reflex? (See Chapter 7 for a description of normal findings.) Source: Courtesy of Kevin Kavanagh, MD, FACS.

  16. Abnormalities of Ears • Recurrent otitis media or effusion • ENT referral for possible tympanostomy tube placement • Otitis externa • Antibiotic ear drops

  17. Abnormalities of Ears • Hearing loss • Sensorineural • Cochlear implant

  18. Box 24-7 (continued) Cochlear Implants

  19. Abnormalities of Nose and Throat • Collaborative care includes antibiotics if bacterial in etiology • Nasopharyngitis • Pharyngitis • Tonsillitis • Tonsillectomy • Criteria for surgery • Sinusitis

  20. Eye Abnormalities • Primary intervention is prevention • ROP interventions and prevention strategies • Protective eyewear

  21. Ear Abnormalities • Prevention focus • Decrease otitis media • Increase access to care • Increase frequency of hearing screens • Reduce noise-induced hearing loss

  22. Nose, Throat, and Mouth Abnormalities • Prevention measures • Education to prevent communicable diseases • Home care for common communicable diseases • Injury prevention • Dental emergencies • Tooth avulsion

  23. Nursing Management of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus • Avoid triggers • Long-term planning for chronic illness • Maintain fluid balance • Promote adequate and appropriate nutrition

  24. Nursing Management of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus • Promote skin integrity • Promote rest and comfort • Emotional support • Community activities and support groups

  25. Collaborate with Family of a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Plan care • Age and developmentally appropriate • Medication regimen • Education on importance of regimen • Education on side effects • Promotion of general health • Avoid infectious individuals

  26. Collaborate with Family of a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • Promotion of growth and development • Proper food • Proper atmosphere, toys, friends • Emotional support • Caregiver • Child • Support groups

  27. Latex Allergy • Increasingly common • Children at risk for allergy • Testing for latex allergy • Latex allergy questionnaire

  28. Nursing Care for Child with Latex Allergy • Alternative products • Medical-alert ID bracelet • Epinephrine kit at home and school • Education of caregivers related to hypersensitivity reactions • Preparation to provide care

  29. Hypersensitivity Reactions in Children • Type I • Definition • Type II • Definition • Type III • Definition • Type IV • Definition

  30. Nursing Management • History • Assessment • Type I and Type II carry EpiPen

  31. Neurological Anatomic Differences in Children • Cranial bones are not completely ossified • Allows for brain growth • The posterior fontanel closes at 3-4 months • The anterior fontanel closes at 18 months • Increases risk for brain and spinal cord injury

  32. Figure 33-2 The skull and brain grow and develop rapidly during early childhood. Infants and young children are at higher risk for injury to the brain and spinal cord because of developing anatomic structures.

  33. Nursing Assessment of Altered Levels of Consciousness and Other Neurological Conditions • Levels of consciousness—most important indicator of neurological dysfunction • Consciousness—receptiveness to stimuli • Alertness—arousal, ability to react • Cognitive power—ability to process data and respond • Altered levels of consciousness • Causes

  34. Nursing Assessment of Altered Levels of Consciousness and Other Neurological Conditions • Levels of consciousness assessment • Categories: confusion, delirium, lethargy, obtunded, stupor, and coma • Decorticate and decerebrate posturing

  35. Figure 33-3A, Decorticate posturing, characterized by rigid flexion, is associated with lesions above the brainstem in the corticospinal tracts.

  36. Figure 33-3 (continued)B, Decerebrate posturing, distinguished by rigid extension, is associated with lesions of the brainstem.

  37. Nursing Assessment of Altered Levels of Consciousness and Other Neurological Conditions • Increased intracranial pressure • Scales for responsiveness

  38. Nursing Assessment of Altered Levels of Consciousness and Other Neurological Conditions • Increased intracranial pressure • Glasgow coma scale

  39. Figure 33-4 Pupil findings in various neurological conditions with altered consciousness. A, A unilateral dilated and reactive pupil is associated with an intracranial mass. B, A fixed and dilated pupil may be a sign of impending brainstem herniation. C, Bilateral fixed and dilated pupils are associated with brainstem herniation from increased intracranial pressure.

  40. Status Epilepticus • An acute seizure that lasts over 30 minutes • Electrolytes, glucose, blood gases, temperature, and blood pressure need monitoring if a seizure occurs for longer than 10 minutes

  41. Nursing Management for Seizures • Maintain airway • Ensure safety • Administer medications • Provide emotional support • Provide education