What WAS the Renaissance? • Started in 1400s • Technically, it’s a “rebirth” of something • Petrarch called the “middle ages”: DARK AGES • He said the GREEKS (500 BC – 300 BC) and ROMANS (300 BC – AD 500) were more civilized • He said humans needed a “Renaissance” of their values to be truly human • Thus, the birth of Humanism Petrarch: the “father of Humanism”
GREEKS • Gave us a good example of culture: • Theater • Democracy • Government “for the people”
ROMANS • Exceptional builders, inventors, and civic involvement • Respected law and order, service to fellow man
Burke/Burkhardt comparison • Each pair in your group choose a different guy • Come up with three reasons why your guy’s view is correct. Present it to the other side. • Together, choose a side. Use some of your notes to justify your side. • Present to class.
Culture of the Middle Ages • 90% of people lived like animals • Life was short • Married young • Women had MANY pregnancies • “Little Ice Age” (1300-1450) • Rivers froze, crops never ripened • Torrential rains ruined crops • Poor harvest == mass starvation => poor birth rates • 1315-1322 – “the Great Famine” – peasants forced to sell land to rich nobles • Fiefs and Vassals • Middle Ages society based on system of loyalty sold for protection • Nobles walled in property (FIEFS) • Knights swore allegiance to higher nobles (VASSALAGE) • Created a hierarchy – king at pinnacle
Homes in the Middle Ages Um… what is that… a barn?!
Humanism • Emphasizes the value of mankind, and all that it is capable of • Only way to truly be human is through careful study and imitation of the great classical authors • Eloquence and education simply for the beauty of learning, not for advancement • Humanism – how is this so very “American”?
Different types of Humanism • Humanism • DESCRIBE HUMANISM • Study the classics, in order to • Become better at thinking, creating, and expressing • Civic Humanism • WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE CIVICALLY RESPONSIBLE? • Also known as “Classical Republicanism” • Emphasized service to community • Celebrated “virtu” (next slide) • Christian Humanism • Attempted to combine humanism with Christian faith • Emphasized indiv. freedom, inspired by teachings of Jesus • BECAME BASIS FOR PROTESTANT REFORMATION, SO WHAT DO YOU THINK PROTESTANTS SAID THEY WERE ALL ABOUT?
What is virtu? Ask yourself these questions: • WHAT MAKES A GREAT LEADER? • WHAT TRAITS DO THEY HAVE? • HOW WILL THEY BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY WHEN THEIR CONSTITUENCY IS NOT LOOKING? • CAN YOU TRUST A GOOD LEADER? • ARE GOOD LEADERS HONEST?
Political Thought • Civil Humanism • Niccolo Machiavelli • The Prince • Machiavellian What is leadership? Frank Underwood – modern version of Machiavelli
Machiavelli activity • Together, as a group, choose three suggestions and… (follow directions)
The Power of the Church • Formed in 4th century before fall of Rome • Combined Christian beliefs & Roman customs • HIGHLY symbolic and impressive image • Powerful influence on all lives: • Controlled calendar of holidays • Officiated most events • Crusades • Sale of INDULGENCES • WHY WILL ALL THAT POWER MATTER? • Power led to corruption • Abuses of power; living well & immoral • Simony (selling relics)
Great art and great artists • Who would you put at the top of the list? • Why? • What IS art, anyway?
5. Printing Press • Printing Revolution • Gutenberg Bible (1456) • Impacted radical ideas and political stability Click – 6m printing press Click – 3m History Channel