stereotypes and prejudice n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Stereotypes and Prejudice PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Stereotypes and Prejudice

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Stereotypes and Prejudice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 199 Views
  • Uploaded on

Stereotypes and Prejudice. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos. Outline. Overview of stereotypes Formation of stereotypes Impact of stereotypes on behavior Decreasing the negative impact of stereotypes Stereotype Threat. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos. Stereotype.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Stereotypes and Prejudice' - kaden-craft


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
stereotypes and prejudice

Stereotypes and Prejudice

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

outline
Outline
  • Overview of stereotypes
  • Formation of stereotypes
  • Impact of stereotypes on behavior
  • Decreasing the negative impact of stereotypes
  • Stereotype Threat

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

stereotype
Stereotype
  • Stereotype: Widely held beliefs about traits that are characteristic of members of a particular group
    • Schemata
    • Beliefs may be positive or negative
  • Prejudice: Feeling directed toward group of people or individual person
    • Attitude

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

stereotypes
Stereotypes
  • Schema: Simplified reconstructions of perceptions of classes of people, objects, events, or situations
    • Facilitate effective organization and processing of large amounts of information
    • Associate new information with pre-existing schemata then remember most prominent features
    • Schematic processing occurs rapidly and automatically

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

schemata cohen 1981
SchemataCohen, 1981

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

schemata
Schemata
  • Other research evidence:
    • Making a hypothesis of blurred picture reduced ability to identify the picture as came into focus (Wyatt & Campbell, 1951)
    • Verbal description of face impairs ability to choose face from many (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990)
  • Conclusion: Effort at attention disrupts the influence of weak cues that might have guided judgment

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

prejudice
Prejudice
  • Prejudice can be expressed through:
    • Antilocution: Talking in negative stereotypes and images
    • Avoidance
    • Discrimination: Behaviors with specific goal of harming another
      • Prevent from achieving goals, getting education or job
    • Physical Attack
    • Extermination

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

slide8
Two blondes went to the pound where each adopted a puppy. The joy of their new best friend was quickly overshadowed when they got home and the first blonde said, "I think we're in trouble, how are we going to tell them apart?"  

This lead to several hours of concentration until finally, the second blonde said, "I've got an idea. We'll tie a red bow around my puppy and a blue bow around yours."  

The next day the first blonde comes running up to the second when she got home, "Oh no, I can't tell whose puppy is whose. They've pulled the ribbons off while they were playing."  

"OK, we need to find a better way to tell them apart," says the second blonde.   After several more hours of concentration, they came up with the bright idea of getting different colored collars.  

Again, the next day, the first blonde comes running up to the second as soon as she gets home, "Oh no, I can't tell whose puppy is whose. They've pulled their collars off while they were playing."

"There's got to be some way to tell them apart," says the second blonde.  

After several more hours of concentration, the first blonde finally comes up with another idea, "I know! Why don't you take the black one and I'll take the white one!"

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

negative stereotypes
Negative Stereotypes

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

social categorization
Social Categorization
  • Social Categorization: Classification of people into groups on the basis of common attributes
    • Use schemata to quickly form impressions and use past experiences to guide new interactions
    • Disadvantages
      • Overestimate differences between groups
      • Underestimate differences within groups

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

social categorization1
Social Categorization
  • In-Group: People perceived as similar to ourselves
  • Out-Group: Others who do not fit into the in-group
  • In-Group Bias: Preferential treatment given to people perceived as a member of one’s group
  • Out-Group Homogeneity Bias: Tendency to assume that members of groups other than own are all alike
  • Attribution Error: If an out-group member does something bad, attribute it to characteristics of the out-group
    • If an in-group member behaves similarly, attribute to the specific person’s characteristics

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

social categorization2
Social Categorization
  • Outgroup-Homogeneity Bias
    • Estimate how many group members share stereotyped characteristic
      • Estimates higher for out-groups than in-groups
    • Estimate range of differences within population,
      • Range narrower with out-group individuals
    • Rate group individuals for how alike they are
      • Out-group members rated as more similar than in-group

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

Least

Generous

Most

Generous

social categorization3
Social Categorization
  • Out-Group Homogeneity Bias
    • Rarely notice differences among out-groups because have little personal contact
    • Rarely encounter a representative sample of out-group members

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

social categorization4
Social Categorization
  • Vicious Circle (Myrdal, 1994)
    • Prejudice demands minorities to be separate
    • Being separate strengthens out-group stereotypes
    • Groups become more separate

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

stereotypes1
Stereotypes
  • More likely to form an impression based on stereotypes when:
    • Busy or distracted
    • Pressed for time
    • Mentally tired
  • Less likely to use stereotypes when alert and motivated to form an accurate impression

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

self fulfilling stereotypes
Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes
  • Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes: Stereotypes can lead us to interact with people in ways that cause them to fulfill our expectations
    • Stereotypes become self-perpetuating and self-fulfilling

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

discrimination
Discrimination
  • Racism: Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race
    • Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race
  • Sexism: Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex
    • Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

sex discrimination
Sex Discrimination
  • Blatant Sex Discrimination: Unequal and harmful treatment of person based on their sex
  • Subtle Sex Discrimination: Unequal and harmful treatment that is less visible and obvious
  • Covert sex discrimination: Unequal and harmful treatment that is hidden, purposeful, maliciously motivated

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

strategies for reducing the effects of discrimination
Strategies for Reducing the Effects of Discrimination
  • Blinding: Denies decision maker information about potentially biasing information
  • Consciousness Raising: Encourages decision maker to have heightened awareness of cues that could elicit discrimination
    • Attention reduces weak automatic influences on judgment
  • Affirmative Action: Attribute leading to discrimination has positive qualification for decision
    • Previous discrimination in education keeps people from succeeding
    • May be viewed as compensation for past, present, and potential future implicit discrimination

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

preventing stereotypes
Preventing Stereotypes
  • Contact Hypothesis: Contact with members of the out-group reduces stereotypes
  • Four necessary conditions (Allport, 1954)
    • Equal status of participants
    • Pursuing common goals
    • Work cooperatively
    • Authorities sanction contact
  • Additional Conditions
    • Generates positive affect
    • Opportunity to learn about out-group members

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

preventing stereotypes1
Preventing Stereotypes
  • Jigsaw Classroom: Cooperative learning strategy for classroom use
    • Divide classroom into groups of 5 to 6 people
      • Diverse by gender, ability, and race
    • Developed to promote cooperation between members of conflicting ethnic groups
    • Research has demonstrated that jigsaw can:
      • Decrease racial conflict
      • Decrease prejudice and stereotyping

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

preventing stereotypes2
Preventing Stereotypes
  • Jigsaw Steps:
    • Appoint a group leader
    • Divide the lesson into one segment for each member
    • Each member learns their segment of the lesson
    • Students learning the same information meet to discuss main points and rehearse presentation
    • Students present their segment to their group
    • Quiz the entire class on all components of the lesson

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

stereotype threat
Stereotype Threat
  • Stereotype Threat: Apprehensiveness about confirming a stereotype
    • When minorities are in situation when stereotype applies, bear emotional and cognitive burden of possibly confirming stereotype
    • Fear to confirm negative stereotype may induce test anxiety and undermine test performance
    • Not necessary to believe stereotype, only that person is aware of the stereotype and cares about performing well enough to disprove

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

slide24

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos

revision
Revision
  • What is a stereotype?
  • What is in-group bias and out-group homogeneity?
  • How can stereotypes be self-fulfilling?
  • How can prejudice and discrimination be reduced in education?

Dr. K. A. Korb

University of Jos