MAYBE NEXT YEAR: A CLEVELAND BROWNS FAN ANALYSIS ON MOTIVATIONS TO BASK IN REFLECTED GLORY Shawna Jackson
Study • Cialdini’s Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG) • Cialdini: commonplace for an individual to show off the successes of others in which they are connected (e.g. sports team) • Bernache-Assollant et al.: accentuating one’s connection with a sports team • Spiral of Silence Theory (Mass Communication) • An individual feels less willing to express their opinion when they are in the minority
Rationale • 2011 Catalyst Fan Engagement Study: 80% of sports fans were connected to their favorite sports team through Facebook • Build on Cialdini’s BIRG • Limited research since the idea was proposed in 1976 (a dozen related studies) • Computer-mediated communication: Facebook • Spiral of Silence Theory • A lot of research on online political discussions, limited on online sports discussions, specifically through Facebook
Rationale cont’d. • Forbes.com: in 2010, Cleveland was named the Most Miserable City in the U.S. • “Cleveland sports fans have had to endure more anguish than those in any other city,” followed by a mention of “crummy sports teams.” • Continued disappointment: will this affect BIRG?
Literature Review • Cialdini, 1976: • College students were more likely to show off their team’s apparel following a victory, describe the victory using the pronoun, “we,” versus “they,” and were more likely to recall a victory in greater detail over a defeat. • Madrigal, 1995: • BIRG led to more satisfaction, creating a higher likelihood that the fans would bask in reflected glory because they physically attended the game. • Grove et al., 1991: • Studied players, coaches, and spectators. Fans found themselves more in control of their reactions when the game resulted in a victory; however, when the game resulted in a defeat, the reactions were less controlled. • Cialdini says a “controlled” reaction is wearing team apparel.
Literature Review cont’d. • McDevitt, Kiousis, and Wahl-Jorgensen, 2003: • Individuals in the minority would be less likely to express their opinions in both face-to-face communication and computer-mediated discussion and individuals, regardless of opinion, are perceived as more moderate in a computer-mediated setting over face-to-face communication • Results showed that individuals in the minority were more moderate than the majority, but not significant • Bordia, 1997: • Computer-mediated communication was found to take a longer amount of time, produce longer and more thought-out ideas, and allow for an equal amount of participation between the individuals in discussion. • Cannot locate anything YET on sports fans and CMC…
Hypotheses • H1: Fans who score higher on the Sports Fan Motivation Scale are more likely to have a high association with the Cleveland Browns than fans who score lower on the Sports Fan Motivation Scale. • H2: Fans who score lower on the Sports Fan Motivation Scale are more likely to indicate less pride in the city of Cleveland than fans that score higher on the Sports Fan Motivation Scale. • H3: Fans in the minority opinion regarding a victory or defeat will be less likely to speak out than fans in the majority opinion on the Official Cleveland Browns Facebook Page. • H4: Fans in the majority opinion regarding a victory or defeat are more likely to use first person singular and plural pronouns when describing a professional football team’s successes than fans in the minority.
Variables • Association with the team (high or low) • Pride • Outcome of the game (victory or loss) • Language • E.g. pronouns
Sampling • Population: Cleveland Browns fans • Sampling frame: Fans who “Like” the Cleveland Browns Facebook Page • 517,000+ users
Pilot Reliability • 2 articles • 1 win, 1 loss • Systematic sampling: every nth user comment • LIWC
Dictionary – LIWC • Pronouns • I, We, They, Them, etc… • Affective/Emotional Processes • Pride, win, happy, hate, nervous, etc… • Sensory/Perceptual Processes • See, hear, feel • Social Processes • References to other people, including family • Relativity • References to past or future seasons • Leisure Activity • Football, game, play • Physical States and Functions • Ache, heart, etc…