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How Public Perceive Health Messages? ASEAN Risk Communication TOT, IHM, 17-19 December 2012, Kuala Lumpur. Hjh Zawaha Hj Idris Institute for Health Behaviour Research Ministry of Health Malaysia. Structure of Presentation. Understanding Public Perception on Health Messages

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slide1

How Public Perceive Health Messages?ASEAN Risk Communication TOT, IHM, 17-19 December 2012, Kuala Lumpur.

HjhZawahaHjIdris

Institute for Health Behaviour Research

Ministry of Health Malaysia

structure of presentation
Structure of Presentation
  • Understanding Public Perception on Health Messages
  • What are their needs in crisis
  • Audience Judgments on messages
  • Tips in Preparing Health Messages
how the public perceives health messages
How the Public Perceives Health Messages
  • Health risk is an intangible concept.
  • The public responds to easy solutions.
  • People want absolute answers.
  • The public may react unfavorably to fear.
  • The public doubts the verity of science.
continue
Continue…
  • The Public has other priorities.
  • Individuals do not feel personally susceptible.
  • The public holds contradictory beliefs.
  • The public lacks a future orientation.
  • The public personalizes new information.
  • The public does not understand science.
slide12

Click on Language to view TVC

B.Malaysia

English

Mandarin

Tamil

slide13
In a serious crisis, all affected

people take in information differently, process information differently and act on information differently (Reynolds, 2002)

what the public seeks in a crisis
What the public seeks in a crisis
  • Gain the wanted facts needed to protect them, their families and their pets from the dangers they are facing
  • Make well-informed decisions using all available information
  • Have an active, participatory role in the response and recovery
  • Act as a “watch-guard” over resources, both public and donated monies
  • Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy, including economic security
5 communication failures that kill operational success
5 Communication failures that kill operational success
  • Mixed messages from multiple experts
  • Information released late
  • Paternalistic attitudes
  • Not countering rumours and myths in real time
  • Public power struggles and confusion
audience judgments about your message
Audience judgments about your message
  • Speed of communication
  • Trust and credibility of the message
    • Empathy and caring
    • Competence and expertise
    • Honesty and openness
    • Commitment
    • Accountability
preparing health messages
Preparing Health Messages
  • Identifying stakeholders early in the communication process
  • Anticipating stakeholder questions and concerns before they are raised;
  • Organizing our thinking and developing prepared messages in response to anticipated stakeholder questions and concerns;
  • Developing key messages and supporting information within a clear, concise, transparent, and accessible framework;
  • Promoting open dialogue about messages both inside and outside the organization;
  • Providing user friendly guidance and direction to spokespersons;
  • Ensuring that the organization has a central repository of consistent messages;
  • Encouraging the organization to speak with one voice.
slide18

Active Interests i.e. General population of the affected country,Neighboring countries, WHO, CDC,

  • Local/ International media, Other agencies

Primary Affected Population i.e. Close contact/ family members/ neighbours/ caretakers

Outbreak area: Affected people

Decision Makers/ Regulators i.ePolicy makers, politicians

Other audiences

7 steps are involved in constructing a message map
7 steps are involved in constructing a message map
  • Identify who are affected?
  • Identify a complete list of specific concerns for each important stakeholder group.
  • Analyze the lists of specific concerns to identify common sets of underlying general concerns.
  • Develop key messages in response to each stakeholder question, concern, or perception
slide20

Develop supporting facts and proofs for each key message

  • Conduct systematic message testing using standardized message testing procedures.
  • Plan for the delivery of the prepared message maps through: (1) a trained spokesperson; (2) appropriate communication channels; and (3) trusted individuals or organizations
slide21
Solutions to mental noise theory that guide key message development specifically, and message mapping generally, include:

Developing 3 key messages or one key message with three parts for each underlying concern or specific question (conciseness)

  • Keeping individual key messages brief: ideally less than 3 seconds or less than 9 words for each key message and less than 9 seconds and 27 words for the entire set of three key messages (brevity)
  • Developing messages that are clearly understandable by the target audience: typically at the 6th to 8th grade readability level for communications to the general public (clarity)
additional solutions include
Additional solutions include:
  • Placing messages within the message set so that the most important messages occupy the first and last positions
  • Citing third parties that are perceived as credible
  • Developing key messages and supporting information that address important risk perception and outrage factors such as trust, benefits, control, voluntariness, dread, fairness, reversibility, catastrophic potential, effects on children, memorability, morality, origin, and familiarity
slide23

Using graphics, visual aids, analogies, and narratives (e.g., personal stories), which can increase an individual’s ability to hear, understand, and recall a message by more than 50 percent

  • Balancing negative key messages with positive, constructive, or solution oriented key messages, employing a ratio of least 3:1
  • Avoiding unnecessary, indefensible, or non-productive uses of the words no, not, never, nothing, none
tips to ponder
Tips to Ponder
  • Who is perceived to be most trustworthy
  • Who is best suited to communicate risk messages
  • What messages are most effective
  • What messages are most respectful of different values and worldviews
  • What messages raise moral or ethical issues
  • What messages are most respectful of process
  • Where, when, and how the risk information should be communicated
in summary
In Summary………
  • Identifying audience
  • Audience segmentation.
  • Prioritize audience according to risk
  • Audience knowledge, perception and motivation.
  • Develop messages based on audience perception.
touch heart message development
Touch Heart - Message Development
  • Simplicity
  • Timely
  • Adequate
  • Relevance
  • Credible
ask me four
Ask Me Four
  • What is the problem?
  • How does the problem affect me?
  • What I need to know?
  • What I need to do?
slide28

AREA of CONCERN

Supportive message 1

Supportive message 2

Supportive message 3

Key message 1

How Influenza A (H1N1)

Spreads

Target Group.

Main concern

Supportive message 1

Supportive message 2

Supportive message 3

Key message 2

What your child can do

to avoid getting influenza A

H1N1

Supportive message 1

Supportive message 2

Supportive message 3

Key message 3

What Pregnant Women Should

Know About Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

references
References
  • Cavello V.T., 2001, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine,Volume 78, No. 2, pg. 382-391, June 2001
  • Cavello V.T, 2002 , Message Mapping, Risk and Risk Communication, Invited Paper Presented at the World Health Organization Conference on Bio-terrorism and Risk Communication, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Bennett, P. (1999) Understanding responses to risk: some basic findings. In Risk Communication and Public Health (eds P. Bennett and K. Calman), pp. 3–19,Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Bennett, P., Coles, D. and McDonald, A. (1999) Risk communication as a decision process. In Risk Communication and Public Health (eds P. Bennett and K. Calman), pp. 207–221, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Communicating in a Crisis: Risk Communication Guidelines for Public Officials. 2002. Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Washington D.C.