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NSLS-II Photon Sources & Beamline Systems. Qun Shen Director, Experimental Facilities Division (XFD) NSLS-II Beamline Development Information Meeting April 14, 2010 Email: qshen@bnl.gov. Outline. NSLS-II Photon Sources Baseline & planned photon sources Spectral brightness & flux

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NSLS-II Photon Sources & Beamline Systems

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nsls ii photon sources beamline systems

NSLS-II Photon Sources & Beamline Systems

Qun Shen

Director, Experimental Facilities Division (XFD)

NSLS-II Beamline Development Information Meeting

April 14, 2010

Email: qshen@bnl.gov

  • NSLS-II Photon Sources
    • Baseline & planned photon sources
    • Spectral brightness & flux
    • Optimization of insertion devices
  • Beamline Systems
    • Overview of beamline systems
    • Beamline optics and expected performance characteristics
  • Guideline to design and construction schedule
  • Technical assistance by light sources staff
design parameters of nsls ii storage ring
Design Parameters of NSLS-II Storage Ring

Overview of one super period of NSLS-II storage ring

typical sector layout at nsls ii
Typical Sector Layout at NSLS-II

Low-b ID

3PW / BM

High-b ID

3PW / BM

electron source size s h v and divergence s h v
Electron Source Size sh,v and Divergence s’h,v

High-b Straight Section (9.3m)

3-pole Wiggler Bending Magnet

Low-b Straight Section (6.6m)

six beamlines in nsls ii construction project
Six Beamlines in NSLS-II Construction Project
  • Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS)
  • Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN)
  • Coherent Hard X-ray Scattering (CHX)
  • Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering & Polarization (CSX)
  • Sub-micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX)
  • X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD)






Note: beamline location assignments preliminary

Conceptual design report posted at http://www.bnl.gov/nsls2/docs/PDF/ CDRs_SixProjectBeamlines_NSLS-II.pdf


currently planned insertion devices at nsls ii
Currently Planned Insertion Devices at NSLS-II
  • Undulators can be canted by 0-2 mrad in both low-b and high-b straight sections
  • DWs can also be canted but requires modification of vacuum chamber

Canting angle 0-2 mrad

current and potential insertion devices at nsls ii
Current and Potential Insertion Devices at NSLS-II

* Requires additional R&D, with CPMU17 as near-term and SCU14 as far-term options

spectral flux of nsls ii infra red sources
Spectral Flux of NSLS-II Infra-Red Sources

Standard gap BMs provide excellent mid and near IR sources;

Large gap (90 mm) BMs provide excellent far-IR sources


Optimization of Undulator Performance Given Accelerator Constraints

Radia Model (central part)

IVU Parameters

O. Chubar (NSLS-II)

Reference Geometry:

Pole Width: 40 mm

Pole Height: 25 mm

Pole Thickness: 3 mm (for λu = 20 mm)


Pole: VaPermendur NEOMAX

Magnet: NdFeB

Magnet Width: 50 mm

Magnet Height: 29 mm

IVU Lengths Satisfying Vertical “Stay Clear” Constraints in Low- and High-Beta Straight Sections

Fundamental Photon Energy vs Gapfor Different IVU Periods (E = 3 GeV)

λu= 23 mm

λu= 22 mm

λu= 21 mm

βy0 = 3.4 m

λu= 20 mm

βy0 = 1.06 m


Spectral Flux of Different IVUs – IXS “Candidates” – Satisfying e-Beam Vertical “Stay Clear” Constraint

Maximal Spectral Flux through 100 μrad (H) x 50 μrad (V) Aperture

E-Beam Energy: 3 GeVCurrent: 0.5 A


High-Beta (Long) Straight Section

~9.13 keV

  • Such insertion device optimization is done during conceptual design
  • Not necessary for beamline development proposal

O. Chubar (NSLS-II)

~9.13 keV


Three-pole Wigglers

  • Added to provide hard x-ray dipole radiation with no significant impact on the emittance
  • Up to 30 can be added to the lattice upstream of each dipole B

-1.5 mrad

0 mrad




+2.125 mrad

+2.5 mrad

+4.25 mrad


3PW and BM Power Density Distributions

Magnetic Field

Power Density Distribution from different parts of TPW and BM at 30 m (single-electron emission, integral over all photon energies, horizontal cuts at y = 0)

|θX| = 4.25 mrad

θX= 0

|θX| ≈ 2.6 mrad

1.65 mrad

O. Chubar (NSLS-II)


3PW and BM Intensity Distributions (Hard X-rays)

  • Intensity distributions at different photon energies at 30 m from 3PW show effects from soft poles in 3PW and from adjacent BMs
  • Effect of such non-ideal intensity distribution on microfocusing is being studied by a working group, and updates will be provided

O. Chubar (NSLS-II)

Vertical Cuts at x = 0

Horizontal Cuts at y = 0

beamline systems overview
Beamline Systems Overview

Utilities and safety system (PSS, EPS)

Front-end (inside storage ring tunnel)

Endstation and experiment controls

Enclosures and beam transport

Photon optical system

optical systems
Optical Systems
  • Beamline optical systems are key functional elements of any synchrotron beamline. Functions may include:
    • Monochromators (single-crystal optics, gratings, multilayers)
    • Beam conditioning (mirrors, focusing optics)
    • Beam filtering (spectral filter, harmonic rejection mirror, spatial filter or beam-defining slits)
    • Power handling (high heat-load optics)
    • Imaging optics (zone-plate objective)

HXN Beamline Optical Layout (top view)

Yong Chu (NSLS-II)

power outputs from insertion devices
Power Outputs from Insertion Devices

O. Chubar (NSLS-II)

  • APS U33 2.4m produces similar power per unit solid-angle as NSLS-II IVU22 6m
cryogenic vs water cooling of si optics
Cryogenic vs. Water Cooling of Si Optics

NSLS-II U20 @ min. gap: 1.8mm(h) x 0.9mm(v)

Bragg angle = 14o

Absorbed Power ~113W

Peak Temp: 116.5 K

Slope Error: 0.4 mrad (due to thermal bump)

  • Cryogenically cooled Si is needed (and is expected to work) for NSLS-II undulator sources
  • Water cooling is adequate for NSLS-II 3PW/BM sources

V. Ravindranath (NSLS-II)

variety of cutting edge focusing x ray optics
Variety of Cutting-Edge Focusing X-ray Optics
  • Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors
    • Large acceptance aperture, achromatic focusing for easy energy scanning
    • Focal size limited by critical angle: achieved ~25 nm
  • Compound Refractive Lens
    • Refraction effect is weak so requires many lenses
    • Shape errors affect focal size: achieved ~50 nm
  • Conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP)
    • Easy to use, good efficiency for soft x-rays but poor efficiency for hard x-rays
    • Focal size limited by smallest features that can be fabricated: achieved ~15 nm
  • Multilayer Laue-Lens (MLL)
    • High aspect ratio (>1000) Fresnel zones can be fabricated; good for hard x-rays
    • Difficult to tune energy
    • Theory shows <1 nm possible: achieved ~16 nm (1D)
  • Multilayer mirrors
    • Good energy tunability; requires ultralow surface finish and precision ML deposition
    • Focal size limited by ML mirror slope errors: achieved ~8 nm (1D)

Above – XRF imaging of a test pattern, scanned through 2D focusing by crossed MLL, with resolution ~20nm x 40nm

Yan, Conley, Lima et al. (NSLS-II)

Maser, Macrander, Shu et al. (ANL)


Canted Beamline Example: SRX Beamline

Thieme et al. (NSLS-II)

KB branch

ZP branch

  • Two x-ray branches using two ~1.5m long U21-type undulators canted by 2 mrad
  • Two hor. mirrors to deflect ZP beam out to allow ~0.5 m separation in ZP hutch

Coherent Soft X-ray Beamline

Sanchez-Hanke, Reininger, et al. (NSLS-II)

Full polarization control branch

Coherent branch

  • Two soft x-ray branches using 2x EPUs canted by 0.16 mrad
  • Branching mirror M1-A to deflect beam outward for the coherent branch
assisting users in beamline proposal process
Assisting Users in Beamline Proposal Process
  • BNL Light Sources scientific staff are part of the scientific user community, and their expertise can be very useful in the beamline development proposal process. NSLS-II and NSLS staff are encouraged to help out user groups who may need certain guidance and technical assistance
  • This help may be in following forms
    • Providing advice and guidance in specific area of expertise;
    • Providing specific technical information such as source properties and existing optical concepts of existing project beamlines; and
    • Helping to address certain technical issues on conceptual level if appropriate.
  • Due to limited resources, NSLS-II and NSLS would not be able to provide engineering assistance on technical problems during BL proposal process
beamline development sources optics group
Beamline Development Sources & Optics Group
  • Beamline Development Sources & Optics Group has been established to assist user groups on specific technical information and on addressing specific technical issues that may have broad interest in the community
  • Users are encouraged to contact the members in specific areas of expertise
  • Members of the Group:
    • Steve Hulbert (hulbert@bnl.gov) – Leader
    • Oleg Chubar (chubar@bnl.gov) – source properties
    • Ruben Reininger (rreininger@bnl.gov) – gratings and mirrors
    • Lonny Berman (berman@bnl.gov) – crystal optics and heat load
    • Zhong Zhong (zhong@bnl.gov) – high energy x-ray monochromators
    • Andy Broadbent (broadbent@bnl.gov) – utilities and safety systems
  • Group meets weekly to discuss any issues that requires attention; XFD Director participates in these meetings to provide oversight and to communicate any additional information as needed
beamline development beamline contact group
Beamline Development - Beamline Contact Group
  • Beamline Contact Group consists of existing beamline group leaders and others with specific expertise in particular type of beamlines; User groups are encouraged to contact the appropriate staff for questions and answers generally related to the type of beamlines of interest.
  • Beamline Contacts:
    • Cecilia Sanchez-Hanke / Ruben Reininger – soft x-ray and VUV beamlines
    • Lonny Berman – 3-pole wiggler and bend-magnet x-ray beamlines
    • Eric Dooryhee – Damping wiggler x-ray beamlines
    • Andrei Fluerasu / Juergen Thieme – undulator x-ray beamlines
  • Beamline contact may seek additional help from the Sources and Optics group to discuss any technical issues, by communicating the topic to any member in the Sources and Optics group.