Transplantation. and its use in gene technology. by Christopher Schlemm and Ilja Klebanov. Introduction General information Methods of transplantation: 3.1 Autografting 3.2 Allografting 3.3 Xenografting. Problems of transplantation Gene technology as a solution 5.1 Organ breeding
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and its use in gene technology
by Christopher Schlemm and Ilja Klebanov
Definition: to transfer a graft (an organ or tissue) from one part or individual to another
Often a transplanted organ is not identified by the immune system as the tissue of the organism
It can be attacked and destroyed.
Against this effect the patient has to swallow Immunesuppressiva which cause symptoms like suffering from AIDS.
In 15-20 minutes the organ dies, unable to withstand the immune system attack.
of a heart
Applications of allografting transplantation
Definition: Xenotransplantation – the transfer of tissue from one species to another
Usually refers to the implantation of animal tissue in humans
e.g. heart, kidney, liver or lung
1. The Chimpanzee:
Its DNA sequence differs from ours by only 2%
2. The Baboon:
Its organs are too small for a large adult human
3. The Pig:
Surprisingly similar too our anatomy and physiology
What is possible using gene technology refering to the problems?
Lack of organs is no longer a problem
I. DNA microinjection
The DNA is inserted into the cell with a small syringe
II. Retrovirus gene transfer
The DNA is carried into a cell by a virus.
The virus carries the desired DNA and infects the cell, which has the effect that the DNA is built into the cell‘s DNA.
The immune system has the task to protect the organism against every foreign cell.
The immune system distinguishes between cells of the body and foreign cells.
The genes which are responsible for the own tissue not being rejected can be injected into an animal embryo the organs of which are then similar to the ones of the human.
It is possible to humanize the bred organs by making certain genetic modifications.
Then the organs are accepted by the immune system.