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Enduring Understandings. A government’s actions impacts its citizens. People tend to justify their actions based on ideals and principles. New ideas can lead to conflict and change. Individuals and groups have struggled to attain equality.

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Enduring understandings
Enduring Understandings

  • A government’s actions impacts its citizens.

  • People tend to justify their actions based on ideals and principles.

  • New ideas can lead to conflict and change.

  • Individuals and groups have struggled to attain equality.

  • Leadership can play a significant role in the outcome of war.

Enduring understandings

The EnlightenmentA time period where philosophers began to use logic and reason to look at the world, it’s laws, and how we treat each other.

Famous philosophers of the Enlightenment:

Montesquieu Rousseau Locke Smith

Also known as the “Age of Reason”.

SapereAude! [Dare to know!] Have the courage to use your own intelligence! is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.

-- Immanuel Kant

John locke adam smith
John Locke Adam Smith

  • He argued that humans have the natural rights.

  • Believed that governments have the responsibility to protect people’s rights.

    Baron de Montesquieu

  • He believed in a separation of powers to avoid tyranny.

  • Smith opposed government interference in economic affairs.

  • Believed in a free market economy with supply and demand.

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • He wrote The Social Contract in 1762.

  • He believed in the idea of popular sovereignty.

Benjamin franklin
Benjamin Franklin

  • Printer, scientist, inventor, author, and philosopher.

  • Author of Poor Richard’s Almanac

  • Very influential on life in the colonies. Below are a few of his achievements:

  • American Philosophical Society

  • Public Libraries

  • Volunteer Fire Brigade

  • Franklin Stove

  • Bifocals

  • Lightning Rod

  • Theories on Electricity

Education in the colonies
Education in the Colonies

1st Public Schools established in Massachusetts

  • Hornbook – textbook

  • New England Primer – required reading in schools and church

  • Dame School: main school for women

    Universities in the colonies:

    Harvard (New College) College of William & Mary Yale University (College School)

    University of Pennsylvania Princeton University Columbia Univ. (King’s College)

    Brown University Dartmouth College Rutgers (Queen’sCollege)

Newspapers and books
Newspapers and Books

Major source of information and communication was through a printer’s office.

Printersserved many different roles:

  • Sold stationary

  • post office

  • advertising agency

  • Newsstand

  • Would publish broadsides (public announcements), business forms & laws.

The zenger trial
The Zenger Trial

  • Printer John Peter Zenger was arrested for “seditious libels” for printing criticism of the Governor of New York.

  • This was an early defense of the freedom of the press in the colonies.

The burning of Zenger's New York Weekly Journal (Bettman Archive)

The french and indian war 1754 1763
The French and Indian War1754 - 1763

  • War between the English Colonies and

    the French + their Native American allies.

    2. Conflict began in the North American colonies.

    3. Called the Seven Year’s War in Europe.

    The results of this war will be a major cause for the colonists to want to fight for independence.

Albany plan of union
Albany Plan of Union

  • Written by Benjamin Franklin

    Suggestion to the English Colonies that they needed to unite together to fight the French or they would fail.

    “Join, or Die”

Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763

The Colonists & the King did not want to pay to keep the armies in the colonies & western frontier.

Forbid colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains

Colonists upset. Why?

They fought the French and Indian War War.

1763 to 1776
1763 to 1776




Enduring understandings



Money paid to the government.

Mr. Matthews

Why did the british need to raise taxes
Why did the British need to raise taxes?

1. Pay for the war with France – it was expensive.

2. Extra troops were sent to protect the colonies – it was expensive.

Sugar act 1764
Sugar Act - 1764

  • Tax on sugar and molasses

    • Required direct trade with England for tobacco, timber, and sugar.

    • Also included taxes on cloth & wine.

  • Harsh punishment of smugglers

  • Why would this

    upset colonists?

Writs of assistance
Writs of Assistance

(Search Warrants)

Military officers could enter homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods.

Many colonists felt these violated their natural rights.

James otis
James Otis

Massachusetts lawyer who protested against unfair English laws such as illegal searches.

Raised the issue:

No Taxation Without Representation!

Quartering act 1765
Quartering Act - 1765

Law that said that colonists had to provide:

  • shelter

  • Food

  • and supplies

    to British soldiers.

    Mostly affected New York

Stamp act 1765
Stamp Act - 1765

All legal and commercial documents had to carry a stamp to show that taxes were paid in silver.

Tax on :




Playing cards

What is the trend?

Sons of liberty
Sons of Liberty

  • Secret Society

  • Lawyers, businessmen, and craftsmen

  • Staged protests against British laws they felt were unfair.

Sam adams
Sam Adams

  • Leader of Boston’s Sons of Liberty

    Argued that the colonies should withdraw and form their own country.

Colonists protest the stamp act
Colonists Protest the Stamp Act

Some protests were violent:

1. Burning of stamped paper

2. Attacking officials

…many tax collectors quit their positions.


  • Refusal to buy.

    Many colonists started making their own goods rather than buy from Britain.

Stamp act congress 1765
Stamp Act Congress – 1765

Nine colonies sent representatives.

Write a petition to King George III to repeal the Stamp Act and Sugar Act.

Grievance: “No taxation without representation” violates colonists rights.


Parliament repeals the Stamp Act!!!

“The Americans have not acted in all things with prudence and [good] temper. They have been driven to madness by injustice. Will you punish them for the madness you have [caused]?”

--William Pitt

And defeat
…and defeat.

Declaratory Act:

Parliament had the supreme power to write laws about the colonies.

Townshend acts 1767
Townshend Acts - 1767

  • Suspended New York representative assembly until they paid for quartering of soldiers.

  • Tariffs on:

    • Glass

    • Lead

    • Paper

    • Paint

    • Tea

Daughters of liberty
Daughters of Liberty

  • Spin their own wool at home.

  • Boycott (don’t buy) British products

  • Look for substitutes for British products

    Ex- Basil tea, coffee

    Abigail Adams

    Deborah Franklin

    Sarah Bradlee Fulton