Vocabulary • Context – How something relates to its surroundings. • Migration – movement of people from one place to another. • Postmolds – remains of posts that had framed early houses • Clovis Point – very large spear heads from Paleo period
Where did they come from? Earliest inhabitants of North America – Theories? What were they after, what were they like, where were they from?
Section 1 – How Did We Learn About the Earliest People? Essential Question • How did Georgia’s prehistoric Indian tribes live?
Differentiate the roles of archaeologists & anthropologists. Archaeologist – looks for artifacts to learn about early inhabitants Anthropologist – uses artifacts to study a group’s culture
Differentiate the roles of archaeologists & anthropologists. Archaeologists determine age 3 ways - carbon 14 • Examine context • Compare to objects from same time period
How are fossils and artifacts different? Fossils – remains of once-living things Ecofacts – Natural object left behind Artifacts – remains of manmade things
Give 2 examples of an artifact. pottery shards, weapons, tools, jewelry
What things make up a culture? beliefs, traditions, music, art, religion, language
Name the 4 pre-historic cultural periods. Paleo Archaic Woodland Mississippian
Of what material were most of the Paleo Indians’ tools & weapons made? Mostly of stone
How did the development of the atlatl improve life for the Paleo Indians? They could kill their prey from a greater distance & remain safer while hunting.
Describe the diet of the Paleo Indians. mammoth, bison, ground sloth, mastodons
Why have very few Paleo sites been found in GA? They were nomadic so they left behind few artifacts.
Near what geographic land feature have Paleo sites been discovered? rivers
How did the diet of the Archaic Indians differ from that of the Paleo? Paleo – all hunting was large game Archaic – began hunting smaller game such as deer, bear, turkey, rabbit, & ate reptiles, game birds, & fish
Why do archaeologists believe there was trading among the different Indian groups? They have found some artifacts made from a stone not found in GA.
What development in the late Archaic period would have a major impact on the Archaic’s culture? saving seeds to plant the next growing season (horticulture)
Why do historians believe the late Archaics had a more permanent or stationary lifestyle? They found pottery for food storage, cooking, & serving, as well as burial grounds & shell mounds.
What is a tribe? a group of people with common ancestry, name, & way of life
What weapon was developed during the Woodland period that made hunting easier? bow and arrow
Describe the diet of the Woodland Indians. fish, small game, nuts, berries, squash, wild greens, & sunflowers
How did Woodland Indians change their pottery to make it last longer? They baked it in a hot fire to make it harder.
Why do archaeologists & anthropologists think the Woodlands believed in an afterlife? They were buried with pottery, tools, weapons, etc.
How was life during the Mississippian period different from that of the Paleo? Paleo were nomadic & had no evidence of religion. Mississippian lived in villages, farmed, & had religious practices.
What types of crops did the Mississippian Indians grow? corn, beans, pumpkins, squash, & tobacco
How did the size of settlements change during the Mississippian period? They grew larger & were made up of as many as 1,000 families in 1 settlement.
How did they protect their settlements? They built palisades (wooden fences) and moats.
What is a midden & what can we learn from one? It is a garbage pile of shell remains that tells us about what they ate, how they used fire, what they used for cooking, etc.
Section 2 – Indian Nations in Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTION • Which Indian nations lived in Georgia and how did they live?
What ends the “prehistoric” period & begins the “historic” period? the beginning of maintaining written records that began with the arrival of the Europeans
Name GA’s 2 largest Indian tribes. • Creek • Cherokee
What were clans? They were groups of people who were related by blood.
How did Native Americans deal with dishonesty? Person was often put to death.