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Czech History
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Czech History

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  1. Czech History • Moravian Empire (843 – 907) • St. Cyril and St. Methodius • Premyslid Family (870 – 1306) • St. Wenceslaus, Premysl Otakar II. • Luxemburg Family (1310 – 1437) • John of Luxemburg, Charles IV., Hussitism • Jagellonians Family (1478 – 1526) • Habsburg Family (1526 – 1918) • battle on Bílá hora, empress Marie Teresa • Czechoslovakia • Czechoslovak Republic (1918 – 1938; T. G. Masaryk) • Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic (1948 – 1989; communism) • Czechoslovak Federative Republic (1989 – 1992) • Czech Republic (1993 – present)

  2. Great Moravian Empire (833 – 907) • first western Slavic state • 833 – after annexation of principality of Nitra – formation of Great Moravian Empire (prince Mojmír I.) • 863 – invitation of Cyril a Methodius (duke Rostislav I.) – effort of emancipation from the Frankish Empire influence • Svatopluk (870 – 894) – after St. Methodius death (885) admitted Franc Empire protection (payments for peace) – empire stabilization, expansion on East and South (see map) • fall of Empire (907) after Hungarian invasion (Mojmir II.)

  3. St. Cyril (826 - 869) a St. Methodius (815 – 885) • Slavic missionaries (brothers) invited to Great Moravia by prince Rostislav I. – effort for emancipation from the Franc Empire influence • inventors of Glagolitic alphabet – used for Slavonic manuscripts • using of old Slavic language for religious service (for common people) • 863 – 885 mission on the Great Moravia • seat on Velehrad (Southern Moravia)

  4. St. Wenceslaus (907 – 935) • main patron saint for Bohemia • from Premyslid Family (ruling duke family in Bohemia) • peace payments to Frankish Empire • built rotunda of St. Vitus on Prague Castle • consistent Christianization in the whole Bohemian princedom • murdered by his brother - canonization

  5. Premysl Otakar II. (1233 – 1278) • ruled in 1253 – 1278 • Premyslid Family – king iron and golden • Styria (marriage, 1252), Hungary (marriage, 1260), expansion of the Bohemian state • foundation of royal cities and support of economic development (king gold) • ambitious – aspiration on the position of Holy Roman Empire king – leading crusades to Lithuania (Koningsberg, 1255) (king iron) • Czech noble opposition (restricted by Premysl) together with Rudolph I. Habsburg – battle of Durnkrut (1278; Hungary) – Premysl death

  6. John the Blind Luxembourgish (1296 – 1346) • die out of the Premyslid Family (1306) • marriage of John of Luxemburg with Elisabeth the Premyslid (1310, crowned for the Bohemian king in 1311) • territorial enlargement of Bohemian kingdom (Silesia, Northitalian cities) – never stay in the kingdom for the long time (tournaments, battles) • motto: „It is gonna never be that Czech king is running away from the battlefield“. Dying in the battle of Crecy (1346, hundred years war; the same day as the day of death Premysl Otakar II.)

  7. Charles IV. (1316 – 1378) • son of John of Luxemburg and Elizabeth the Premyslid, educated in France (former name Wenceslaus) • king of Holy Roman Empire (1346) and emperor (1355) • founder of Prague archbishopric (1344), Bohemian crown jewelry (1346), Charles University (1348), Karlstein (1348), Charles bridge (1357) etc. • marriage politics as the tool for regional enlargement and politics (4 wives; added Palatinate, Lusatia), gained Brandenburg (1371)

  8. Hussites (1420 – 1434) • burning of Master Jan Hus (1415, religious Council of Constance where he should defend himself) • protestant and reform movement in Roman Catholic church relates with Master Hus heritage – to live according to the Bible, criticizing the church • foundation of city Tábor (where they decided to live according to the Bible) • leader Jan Zizka (+1424), Hussites fought off 5 crusades against Bohemia • defeat of hussitism – battle of Lipany (1434) – Hussites against Hussites • negative economic impacts on the whole kingdom

  9. Battle of White Mountain (1620) • one of the battles in so called Thirty years war (1618 – 1648) • catholic league (Habsburg) against protestants • 21. 6. 1621 – execution of 27 Bohemian noblemen on Old Town Square in Prague for the participation in contrahabsburg uprising (fight for noble privileges and religious freedom – after Hussitism in Bohemia was religious toleration) • strengthen of Catholicism and confirmation of absolutistic regime of Habsburg – emigration wave (J.A. Komensky)

  10. Jan Amos Komensky (1592 – 1670) • teacher of the nations (died in Naarden, NL) • prostestant bishop • Work: • Informatory of nursery school • Orbis pictus (first pictorial schoolbook in the world) • Language Gate Opened (how to learn languages) • Didactica Magna (contains principles of modern education, e.g.: education for all, free of charge and in mother tongue, compulsory school attendance, clearness of education, process from known to unknown, from simplicity to complexity of the knowing of the Nature, adequacy of the theme to the age, accent on praxis). Includes opinion on the education concept – splits education in 4 periods, each for 6 years : 0 – 6 childhood – nursery school 6 – 12 boyhood – general school12 – 18 adolescenthood – grammar school18 – 24 youth – academy + 2 years of traveling

  11. Maria Teresa (1717 – 1780) • empress from the Habsburg house • enlightened ruler, number of reforms: • Military service (administrative military districts; war with Prussia (1756 – 1763)) • justice (forbidding of right of torture) • regional administration (attendance to the office as well as for qualified nonaristocrats; first compact lists of possessions of all subjects – registries) • education (1773) – secularizing of universities (restriction of the Jesuits influence), prototypal schools, unification of requirements on schools and teachers as well, school hierarchy, teaching only in German

  12. Czechoslovakia • Czechoslovak Republic (1918 – 1938) • founders: T. G. Masaryk, E. Benes • united, centralistic, national state based on the idea of „czechoslovakismus“) • model and garantor was France • Tomas Garrigue Masaryk – first Czechoslovak president (till 1935), after him dr. E. Benes • nationalities: Czech (6,7 mil; 50%), German (3,1 mil; 23%); Slovak (2 mil; 23%), Hungarian (0,8 mil; 5,5%), Karpatorusíni (0,5 mil; 3,5%), others (0,5 mil; 4%) • Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic (1948 – 1989) • takeover of all power by communistic party • Region of interest of USSR • Czechoslovak Federal Republic (1989 – 1992) • continuing in democratic development before 1948 • issue with national structure (Slovak vs. Czech) • Czech Republic (1993 – present)

  13. Other famous Czechs • František Palacký (1799 – 1876; historian) • Tomas Garrigue Masaryk (1850 – 1938; first Czechoslovak president) • Nobel Laureates: • Jaroslav Heyrovský (chemistry; polarograph) • Jaroslav Seifert (literature)

  14. Thank you for your attention • Made by Zdena Palupová and Jitka Müllerová