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The Rock Cycle. Chapters 5 & 6. What are the types of rock?. Igneous rocks Form from cooling magma Recall: magma is molten material beneath Earth’s surface Sedimentary rocks Form from cementing and compacting pieces of sediment

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the rock cycle

TheRock Cycle

Chapters 5 & 6

slide2
What are the types of rock?

Igneous rocks

Form from cooling magma

Recall: magma is molten material beneath Earth’s surface

Sedimentary rocks

Form from cementing and compacting pieces of sediment

Sediment is pieces of solid material deposited on Earth’s surface

Metamorphic rocks

Rocks that have been changed from heat and pressure

slide5
Igneous Rocks

Formation of igneous rock

Intrusive

Formed by magma that cools slowly

Formed beneath the Earth’s surface

Coarse-grained

Ex. granite

Extrusive

Formed by magma that cools quickly

Formed above the Earth’s surface

Fine-grained

Ex. Rhyolite

slide8
Properties of igneous rock

Mineral composition

Light colored = felsic

Dark colored = mafic

Grain size

Coarse-grained = intrusive

Fine-grained = extrusive

slide10
Sedimentary Rocks

Formation of sedimentary rock

Weathering produces sediments

Physical weathering

Happens when rock fragments break off.

Ex.

Temperature changes expand or contract rock

Living organisms like trees crack rocks

slide11
Chemical weathering

Happens when the minerals in rocks are chemically changed

Ex.

Dissolving

Oxidation (rust)

slide12
Erosion transports weathered sediments from one place to another

Types of erosion

Wind

Moving water

Gravity

Glaciers

slide13
Deposition is when sediments are laid down on the ground or under water

This can cause sorting of sediments into layers, which is called bedding.

Deposited sediments become buried

slide14

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0604/es0604page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualizationhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0604/es0604page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

slide15
Lithification happens when the weight of overlaying sediments forces grains closer together.

Water is pressed out

Sand is compacted

High temperatures (~3-4km deep) cause cementation

New minerals can grow between cemented sediments

slide16
Properties of sedimentary rock

Clastic—formed from deposits of loose sediments

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0605/es0605page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

Chemical—formed from precipitation of minerals dissolved in water

Organic—formed from accumulation and lithification of dead organisms

Ex. coal

slide18
Metamorphic Rocks

Formation of metamorphic rocks

High temperatures and pressures increase with depth

High temperature comes from Earth’s internal heat or intruding magma.

High pressure comes from overlying rock or the compression of mountain building

Rocks do not melt, but change in texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0607/es0607page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

slide20
Properties of metamorphic rocks

Texture

Foliated—wavy layers and bands of minerals

Nonfoliated—minerals form blocky crystals

Mineral composition

Heat & pressure can change one mineral into another

Chemical composition

Hot fluids go in and out of the rock during metamorphism, changing its chemistry

slide21
What is the rock cycle?

The rock cycle is the continuous changing and remaking of rocks

Any type of rock can turn into any other type of rock

Matter making up rocks is neither crated nor destroyed, but simply changed.

slide22
Processes that power the rock cycle

Internal processes

Uplift

Heat & pressure

Melting

Cooling & crystallization

External processes

Uplift

Weathering & erosion

Deposition, burial, & lithification