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Alstom. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO FULFILLMENT OF GRID CODE REQUIREMENTS IN LARGE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS. Marc Sala, Vicenç Casadevall (Alstom Wind) Liangzhong Yao, Norman MacLeod (Alstom Grid) Brussels, 16/03/11. Alstom is currently developing an offshore WTG with the following main features : 6MW

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    1. Alstom INTEGRATED APPROACH TO FULFILLMENT OF GRID CODE REQUIREMENTS IN LARGE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS Marc Sala, Vicenç Casadevall (Alstom Wind)Liangzhong Yao, Norman MacLeod (Alstom Grid)Brussels, 16/03/11

    2. Alstom is currently developing an offshore WTG with the following main features: 6MW Large rotor diameter ALSTOM PURE TORQUE™ Direct Drive and Permanent Magnet generator Optimized head mass Time to market schedule: Prototype phase: 2011 – 2012 Pre-series: 2013 Serial production: 2014 Offshore Alstom Wind’s offering Pushing the limits to become a leader in offshore wind

    3. Offshore Alstom Grid’s offering • Alstom Grid is a world leader in electrical infrastructure for offshore wind • Experience offshore since 2006, >1,900MW references Several competences to supply full solution • HV substation equipment and engineering • Offshore platform engineering • Construction of the topside (shipyard) • Installation at sea • Foundation engineering • Foundation construction Note: the foundation is often managed separately Increased offering to serve the offshore market

    4. Location offshore substation Grid code requirements Type of transmission Voltage levels Distance to shore Subsea soil Cable routes Electrical Infrastructure Combination of passive and active components (power electronics)

    5. Frequency Control Active Power Control Voltage Control Reactive Power Control LFRT/HVRT Stability at grid faults Power Quality Provision of Inertia Compliance tests Grid Code Requirements 180MW Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Substation Dependency on Reference Point & Connection Network

    6. Frequency Control Power reduction with frequency increases No disconnection in case of frequency drops Automatic regulation Active Power Control Maximum power limitation Delta production (reserve) Start/ stop control Remote commands Power Control Good potential combination with Energy Storage equipment

    7. Voltage Control MVAr control reference at PCC-offshore (MV) Voltage control at connection onshore (HV) Combination of reactive power capabilities of wind turbine and substation level equipments Automatic regulation Reactive Power Control Minimisation of losses in transmission to onshore Apparent power limit follow up External Q set points from operator Remote commands Reactive Power Control Combination of Q capabilities of WT and substation level equipments (on and offshore)

    8. LFRT /HVRT No disconnection during grid faults or peaks Current injection during fault / consumption during peak 3ph, 2ph, 1ph faults Continue production after clearance Very fast response required Can be managed either at WT or at substations level Stability against Grid faults/ peaks Response expected at the connection point

    9. Comparison of SVC and STATCOM Characteristics TSC & TCR STATCOM Grid Stability System Voltage (p.u.) 1.0 p.u. The capability of the STATCOM to operate at low voltage allows it to contribute to the low voltage ride through requirement. 0.4 p.u. 1.0 p.u. 1.0 p.u. Capacitive Current (Leading) Inductive Current (Lagging)

    10. Control of wind farm operation to meet the grid code requirements Control of wind turbines Control of reactive power compensation device such as SVC, STATCOM Control of offshore substation HVDC converter control An integrated control approach can improve the operation performance of wind farm Real-time data management and visualisation More intelligent operation and control Control room Monitor and control of wind farm

    11. HVAC topology- Current Practice Independency between substation and WF controllers

    12. HVAC topology- Integrated approach Optimisation of global response by linking controllers

    13. HVDC topology HVDC requires integrated WF approach

    14. Fulfilment of Grid Requirements in OWF is obtained by combining capabilities of substation equipment and wind turbines Electrical infrastructure and substations equipments are project dependent Integration of substation equipment and wind turbines in same algorithms allows: Optimised response of the whole WF at the connection points Reduced losses Better management of interfaces (WT/substation) Cost and risk reduction Conclusions Customised project approach solutions

    15. Thanks for your attention