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NEW. Alstom International EHS Passport EHS Training Program Working at Height AIEP-TM-9015-en_Working at Height_Rev_02_101029. Content. Introduction . Working at Height. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights. Control of Hazards. Steps for Safe Working at Height. Fall Prevention.

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Alstom International EHS Passport EHS Training Program Working at Height


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    1. NEW Alstom International EHS Passport EHS Training Program Working at Height AIEP-TM-9015-en_Working at Height_Rev_02_101029

    2. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    3. Working at Height NEW Introduction • The training module “Working at height” is an integrated part of the Alstom International EHS Training Program. • The content is based on the guidelines and procedures of the Corporate EHS Management System and has been edited for the purpose of training. • The content of the module and the corresponding knowledge test have been reviewed and approved by the AIEP Training Board, and will be updated and/or adjusted when deemed necessary. • The completionof this training module is mandatory, and the achievement of a passing grade in the knowledge test constitutes the minimum requirement to acquire the Alstom International EHS Passport.

    4. Working at Height Reference Documents

    5. Working at Height Learning Objectives Upon completion of this training module, the student will know and understand: • what is working at height • hazards related to working at Height • safe working on ladders, scaffolds,work platforms & roofs • the hierarchy of measures to be taken when working at height • the key elements of safe working at height • the techniques and equipment to be used • emergency rescue

    6. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    7. Working at Height What is Working at Height • Work at height is work in any place, including a place at, above or belowground level, where a person could be injured if they fell from that place. • Access and egress to a place of work can also be work at height. • It does not include stairways or slips or trips on the level. Any persons involved with the design or erection of fall prevention or fall protection equipment must be subject to formal competence checks in order to ensure that they possess the necessary training, competence and qualifications to perform those tasks before being allowed to work on site.

    8. Working at Height Examples of working at height • Working on roof. • Working on ladders. • Working at ground level adjacent to an open excavation. • Working from temporary work platforms- scaffold, MEWP, tanks etc.

    9. Working at Height Planning, Organizing and Competence • Work at Height must be: • Properly planned and communicated to all, including contractors before work commences. • Appropriately supervised by competent people. • Not carried out if weather conditions jeopardise safety. • Those working at height must be: • Competent and entered onto a register. • Or, if being trained, supervised by a competent person. Whilst passing this training module counts towards proving competence, annual practical training, experience and attendance at induction training, toolbox talks and risk assessment meetings provides further evidence towards proof of competence.

    10. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    11. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working on roofs • Fall Occurs • from the edges of roofs • through gaps or holes in roof • through fragile roof materials and roof lights • injuries by material falling or thrown from roofs.

    12. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working on Ladders • Ladder should be used for short-term & light work. • Types of Ladders • Extension Ladder • Step Ladder • Rolling Ladder • Fixed Ladder • Rope Ladder

    13. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working on Ladders • Hazards associated with Ladders • falls from ladders. • struck by falling ladders. • struck by materials falling from ladders. • tripping over ladders. • lifting heavy ladders. • striking persons or objects when carrying ladders. • contact with electrical equipment.

    14. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working at ground level adjacent to an open excavation • Hazards while working at ground level adjacent to an open excavation. • falls. • falling object. • falling mobile equipment. • access/Egress. • collapse.

    15. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working from Temporary Work Platforms- Scaffolds • Hazards while working from scaffolds. • fall from scaffolding. • electric shock . • scaffold collapse. • falling object.

    16. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working from Temporary Work Platforms- MEWP • MEWP (Mobile Elevating Work Platforms) A general term used for scissor lift, aerial platform, or an extensible or articulating boom aerial device (either self-propelled or vehicle-mounted) used for the purpose of positioning personnel, their tools and necessary materials to elevated work locations.

    17. Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Working from Temporary Work Platforms- MEWP • Hazards while working from MEWP • tip/roll-over. • collapses. • personnel being thrown from the basket. • falling or pinned by a nearby structure. • contact with electrical lines or equipment.

    18. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    19. Control of Hazards Working on roofs • When working on sloping roofs: • Use proper roof ladders. • Wear a safety harness. • When working on fragile roofs: • Use crawling boards. • Ensure a warning sign is displayed at all access points.

    20. Control of Hazards Ladder Safety • May be used for light tasks of low risk and short duration (in conjunction with a safety harness); or access and egress to a work platform. • Must be secured to prevent slipping– sideways and outwards. • Should be Installed at an angle of 4:1 (or 75°). • Must extend approx. 1 m above working platform (if applicable).

    21. Control of Hazards Ladder Safety • Must not be painted. • Should be placed on a register and inspected at least once per week. • Vertical ladders installed for construction purposes, at a height where a person can fall more than 3 m, must be fitted with a cage / hoops and a vertical lifeline. • Vertical ladders over 9 m high must have platform every 9 m and be offset at every platform.

    22. Control of Hazards Ladder Safety • Always maintain a 3-point (two hands and a foot, or two feet and a hand) contact on the ladder when climbing. • Use non conductive ladders around exposed wires or while working with electricity. • Secure your tools & materials to prevent fall. • Never use a damaged ladder (tag & remove it from service). • Do not over-reach in getting parts, material, etc.

    23. Control of Hazards Scaffolds • All scaffolds must be designed, erected, altered and dismantled by a competent person. • Once erected, scaffolds must be inspected by a competent person: • Before first use. • After substantial alteration. • After any event likely to have affected its stability e.g. after strong winds. • At least once every 7 days inspections must be recorded and a Scaf-tag system or equivalent used to indicate inspection status. In the event that faults are found, the tag must be pulled and the scaffold taken out of use until repaired.

    24. Control of Hazards Scaffolds • All scaffolds must have a top guardrail fixed at a height of 1.1 m, an intermediate guardrail & toe boards to all sides from where a person or material can fall. • Scaffolds and ladders must not be erected close to ejectors, blow-off valves or live power lines / cables / conductors. • Scaffolds erected around structures that may have electrical services, and where electrical equipment is to be used, must be earthed.

    25. Control of Hazards Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWP) • MEWP can provide safe access and safe working at heights, and are often safer than ladders or other access equipment. • Equipment must be thoroughly tested & examined by a competent person before first use & at least once every six months. • Equipment must be inspected daily by operators / users and repaired if defects found. • Operators must be trained in its use, inspection and emergency procedures. • Baskets must have barriers / boards (approx. 1.1 m in height and toe boards / kick-plates). • Operators must wear a safety harness - attached to the basket.

    26. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    27. Steps for Safe Working at Height Steps: • 1: Risk Assessment. • 2: Hierarchy for Safe Working at Height. • 3: Planning and Organizing. • 4: Ensure that those working at height are competent. • 5: Use appropriate Work Equipment. • 6: Manage the Risk from Falling Objects. • 7: Inspect and Maintain the Work Equipment and Workplace.

    28. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 1: Risk Assessment • Prior to any person working at height, a risk assessment must be carried out and properly communicated in order to identify the risks and the safety measures needed to eliminate or reduce the risk. • The first question should always be, “can the need for work at height be eliminated or minimised”. • A person who is sufficiently experienced to be able to identify competently the health and safety risks arising out of the work should carry out the assessment. The assessment must be reviewed by Alstom. • In those cases where it is not reasonably practicable to provide a safe working platform and a person has to rely on the use of a safety harness, a suitable rescue plan must also be considered.

    29. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 1: Risk Assessment • Each assessment should be proportionate to the risks involved but factors to consider include: • Environment and conditions – location, access, egress, weather and ground conditions, other activities. • Task to be performed - extent of the task, its complexity, duration, frequency.   • People involved - numbers, degree of exposure to the risk, competence of workers involved, (including Contractors),levels of supervision required. • The quality of the site induction program, were Alstom’s expectations for working at height explained adequately?

    30. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 1: Risk Assessment • Also, consider risks to or presented by those not directly involved in the work, work equipment and / or other structures to be used. • Whatever action is taken to control the risk(s), it should be proportionate to the risk of harm and reflect what is reasonably practicable. • but remember, serious injuries can be caused by falls from relatively low heights (injury statistics show that falls from below 2 m account for two thirds of all major accidents); don’t assume that little or nothing need be done to prevent them. A height of 500mm should set the need for risk assessment.

    31. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 2: Hierarchy for Safe Working at Height • Avoid – Prevent – Mitigate • Avoid working at height. • If you don’t have to go up there DON’T. • It may be possible to assemble a structure on the ground and then lift it into place using the appropriate lifting equipment.

    32. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 2: Hierarchy for Safe Working at Height • Prevent falls • Where working at height is absolutely necessary, the first consideration must be to provide a safe working platform, so far as is reasonably practicable. • This could be a permanent structure such as a building, or an industrial plant, the top of a piece of machinery or a vehicle or an item of work equipment, such as a scaffold or a MEWP (mobile elevating working platform). • In all, cases it must be safe i.e. there is no foreseeable risk of a person falling from it. • Work platforms must be strong and rigid enough to prevent people from falling, have no gaps in the flooring or toe boards and be able to withstand other loads likely to be placed on them.

    33. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 2: Hierarchy for Safe Working at Height • Prevent falls • Edge protection must be provided. • Barriers other than guardrails and toe boards can be used, as long as they are at least 1.1 m high, secure and provide an equivalent standard of protection against falls and materials rolling, or being kicked, from any edges. • If the risk comes from falling through openings or fragile material an alternative to guard rails or a barrier is to cover the opening or material. Any covering should be: • Strong enough to support any loads likely to be placed on it (including the weight of a person); and • Fixed in position to prevent accidental dislodgement. To prevent people removing coverings, mark them with a warning (e.g.‘Hole below - do not remove’)

    34. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 2: Hierarchy for Safe Working at Height • Mitigate the consequences of a fall. • Where the risk of people or objects falling still remains you should take steps to minimize the distance and consequences of such falls. • Give collective protective measures (e.g. guardrails, nets, airbags, MEWP etc.) precedence over personal measures. • Equipment chosen should minimize injury, but you must also consider • Work location e.g. trailing lanyards can cause a significant tripping hazard and are rarely suitable at a height below 4 m. • Consequences of falls - including the effects of the equipment used e.g. injury caused by deceleration and from hanging motionless in harness after the fall.

    35. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 3: Planning and Organizing • Consider the effects of adverse weather conditions • Suitable and sufficient lighting should be provided. • Lightning, wind, rain, snow, ice, temperature and sun will affect working conditions. • MWEP cannot be used in strong winds. • Bulky clothing could get caught up in machinery or make access more dangerous. • Build-up of mud on ladders will make them less safe, as would placing them on a surface that may have become slippery. • Extreme heat can make people exhausted more quickly and may increase likelihood of human error - regular work breaks may be necessary.

    36. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 3: Planning and Organizing • Plan the work and use suitable work equipment. • Provide appropriate supervision proportionate to the risks and the experience and capability of the people involved in the work. • Make sure those affected understand the risk assessment and what they must do to comply with it. • Plan for emergencies and rescue, taking account of possible risks to rescuers.

    37. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 4: Ensure that those working at height are competent • Competence is a combination of appropriate practical and theoreticalknowledge, training and experience that collectively should enable a person to: • Undertake safely their specified activity at their level of responsibility. • Understand fully any potential risks related to the work activity (tasks and equipment). • Detect any defects or omissions and recognize any implications for health and safety with the aim of specifying appropriate remedial actions that may be required in relation to their particular work activity.

    38. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 5: Use appropriate Work Equipment • The choice of equipment: • Will depend on the risk assessment and envisaged usage. • Involves “reasonable practicability”. • Must prevent a person falling or minimize risk of doing so. • A ladder may reach the workplace but if workers need to climb it for long durations or with heavy or bulky equipment, scaffolding is likely to be more appropriate.

    39. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 5: Use appropriate Work Equipment • However, if a scaffold is to be in place for some time, the erection of a staircase with handrails would be more appropriate than a ladder tied in place. • On the other hand, the risks of installing scaffolding should be considered, especially for work of short duration, where a MEWP might be more appropriate. • However, MEWP should not generally be used as a means of access to and egress from work platforms – the necessity to climb out of MEWP should be avoided.

    40. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 6: Manage the Risk from Falling Objects • Precautions must be taken to ensure that portable tools, hand tools, materials etc. cannot fall onto people below. • Consider the use of collective protection measures such as safety nets, plastic sheeting and toe boards. • Where reasonably practicable, erect barriers below the work platform to prevent people walking below and / or erect warning signs. • Consider attaching tools to straps / lanyards fixed to anchor points, but bear in mind this may introduce additional tripping hazards.

    41. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 6: Manage the Risk from Falling Objects • Never throw or drop tools, materials etc. below. • Consider the use of enclosed rubbish chutes or lower debris in containers.

    42. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 7: Inspect and Maintain the Work Equipment and Workplace • Inspection of Equipment • A competent person should determine the nature, frequency and extent of any inspection taking account of such factors as the type of equipment, how and where it is used, its likelihood to deteriorate, etc.. • Formal thorough examinations are not a substitute for any pre-use checks or routine maintenance. • Inspection of the Workplace • Surface conditions and other permanent features where work at height will be taking place should be checked each time before work starts in order to identify whether there are any obvious defects.

    43. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 7: Inspect and Maintain the Work Equipment and Workplace • Maintenance • Frequency of maintenance will depend on the equipment, the conditions in which it is used and the manufacturer’s instructions. • Planned preventive maintenance involves replacing parts or making necessary adjustments at pre-set intervals. • Condition-based maintenance involves monitoring the condition of safety-critical parts and carrying out maintenance whenever necessary e.g. hydraulic systems in a MEWP. Any equipment used in working at height which is found to be defective, must be removed from service until repaired or destroyed.

    44. Steps for Safe Working at Height Step 7: Inspect and Maintain the Work Equipment and Workplace • Competence • All personnel must be competent in the inspection and maintenance tasks they are required to perform. • Hired Equipment • Where work equipment is hired, it is important that both the hire company and the person responsible for hiring the equipment agree upon which party will carry out safety-related inspection and maintenance. This arrangement must be documented.

    45. Content Introduction Working at Height Hazards Associated with Working at Heights Control of Hazards Steps for Safe Working at Height Fall Prevention Permit to Work Emergency Rescue Plan Local Application Summary

    46. Fall Prevention Fall Protection Equipment • When an elevated work location cannot be accessed safely from a ladder or protected work platform or when the installation of guardrails is infeasible, fall restraint or fall arrest systems may be used. • Personal fall-arrest system arrests a fall. • Personal fall-restraint system prevents a fall.

    47. Fall Prevention Fall Protection Equipment • A personal fall-arrest system consists of an anchorage, connectors, and a full-body harness that work together to stop a fall and to minimize the arrest force. Other parts of the system will include a lanyard, a deceleration device, and may include a lifeline. • A personal fall-restraint system prevents a worker from reaching an unprotected edge and thus prevents a fall from occurring. The system consists of an anchorage point, connectors and a body harness.

    48. Fall Prevention Fall Distance Calculation • When using a fall arrest system, the fall distance calculation must account for the length of lanyard, deceleration distance, the height of the person wearing the equipment (or the height of the D-ring attached to the back of the harness), the position of the anchorage point, lanyard or rope elongation and a safety factor.

    49. Fall Prevention Fall Protection Equipment- Safety Harness, Lanyards, Fall Arrestor • Safety harnesses and associated equipment must be inspected daily or before each use by the user and every three months by a competent person. • Harness used in a fall arrest situation must be withdrawn from service and not re-used until a full examination has been performed. • Records of thorough examinations must be maintained. • All lanyards should be made from flame resistant materials. • Inertia reels may be used to enable safer movement in certain areas.

    50. Fall Prevention Fall Protection Equipment- Safety Harness, Lanyards, Fall Arrestor • Lifelines used for the attachment of safety harnesses must be: • Made from steel rope – standard 12 mm . • Installed and validated by a competent person. • Tensioned by turnbuckle or similar. • Designed to support the maximum number of workers – standard three people. • Securely anchored a both ends with triplicate wire rope clamps, at points able to withstand the dynamic load generated by a fall.