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Prison Management. Governing Prisons Corrections Officers. Prisons as unique organizations (vs. UMD or General Motors). Don’t select clients Have little or no control over release Clients held against their will Clients do most of the daily work in the institution (and are not really paid)

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Prison management

Prison Management

Governing Prisons

Corrections Officers

Prisons as unique organizations vs umd or general motors
Prisons as unique organizations (vs. UMD or General Motors)

  • Don’t select clients

  • Have little or no control over release

  • Clients held against their will

  • Clients do most of the daily work in the institution (and are not really paid)

  • Depends on the relationships between staff & clients

How best to run prison
How best to run prison?

  • The “Old Penology”

    • PN vs Auburn model, prison farms, etc.

    • Use of corporal punishment

  • Sociological Research/Implications

    • Interest in inmate culture, argot roles, “prisonization,” and so forth

      • Not interested in helping “the man” control inmates

    • Implies that running a prison demands the cooperation of inmates (CO-inmate agreement, tolerate some violations, etc.)

John diiulio governing prisons 1986
John DiIulio Governing Prisons (1986)

  • Approaches issue from policy/political science background

  • What is a “good prison?”

    • Confinement model

      • Order, amenity, security

  • Comparison of three prison systems

    • TX control model

    • MI responsibility model

    • CA consensual model

  • Concludes TX is best, and suggests much of the prison violence in 1960s/70s due to “lax, liberal” management

Diiulio ii
DiIulio II

  • Critique

    • Was prison violence of the 1970s due to lax/permissive management?

    • The “exceptional leader” theory of prison management

    • Defects in the TX system

      • Building Tenders

      • CO use of physical coercion

    • Collapse of TX system in 1980s

  • Importance of Book: MANAGEMENT MATTERS

Manager styles
Manager Styles

  • Authoritarian

    • gives orders, manages details, controls all (TOP DOWN)

      • Joseph Ragen (Stateville until 1960s)

      • George Beto (TX until 1970s, “Walking George”)

  • Laissez-faire

    • Little/no direction (do what you think is best)

      • Maybe for hospitals (highly trained staff) but probably not prisons

  • Democratic/participatory

    • See, “A Model Prison” box in Clear et al. book

      • Inmates pool funds to buy amenities, “town hall meetings”

Unit management
Unit Management

  • Used heavily in the federal BOP and many states (more popular of late)

  • Divide prison into small “units”

    • Greatly aided by architecture (pods)

    • Units more manageable

      • Team approach (CO and caseworkers)

      • Better career ladder

      • Restrict inmate movement

Corrections officers
Corrections Officers

  • How do CO’s maintain control over the inmate population?

    • Hassine?

    • Conover?

  • Bases of Power

    • Legit (power b/c of position)

    • Coercive (ability to punish)

    • Reward (ability to reward)

    • Expert (special knowledge, skill, professional judgment)

    • Referent (gain respect)

Influences on power
Influences on Power

  • What dictates the type of power that is most important to a CO?

    • Environment/Structure

      • Coercion less likely in a centralized bureaucracy

      • Expert more valued and training more likely

    • Attitudes/Roles

      • More social distance = less referent/expert power

      • Custody orientation = more coercive

    • Type of prison (Rx or Custody)

      • Rx depends upon more referent/expert power

Marquart 1986
Marquart (1986)

  • The extent and nature of the use of coercive force

  • Qualitative/participatory study—CO in the Texas Department of Corrections

  • “Ass Whooping” and “Tune up” relatively common.

    • Part of CO subculture (build cohesion), how officers got better post or were promoted, maintain “control model”

      • More common among young

Job satisfaction burnout
Job Satisfaction/Burnout

  • Why Important?

  • What predicts burnout/intention to quit?

    • Importation (Gender, Race, Education, etc.)

      • Weak effects, but nonwhite, female, more education hold more negative attitudes

    • Deprivation (Perception of Danger)

      • Danger is #1 predictor (mean r = .26)

    • Management (Supervisor Support, Role conflict)

      • Role conflict (r = .22), Support (r = -.16)

Co basics
CO Basics

  • Corrections Officers

    • More popular now (move up ranks, money is a bit better, more qualfications)

    • Median federal around $40K (State = $32K, Private = 22K)

    • Job prospects = good

  • Corrections Counselors

    • More requirements (psychology degrees) and earn more money (case manager, counselor)