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India Geography Unit III
Place to Identify on your Map • Eastern and Western Ghats; Himalayan Mountains; Hindu-Kush Mountains; Khyber Pass; Deccan Plateau; Thar Desert; Indo – Gangetic Plain; Ganges River; Indus River; Brahamaputra River; Bay of Bengal; Arabian Sea; Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka; Pakistan; Bangladesh; China; Nepal; Bhutan; Kashmir • New Delhi; Calcutta; Madras; Bombay; Karachi; Dhaka; Benares
Geography Notes • Location • Triangle that juts southward from Asia • North: Hindu-Kush and Himalayan Mts. • South: Arabian Sea • West: Arabian Sea • East: Bay of Bengal • Subcontinent – landmass smaller than a continent
Geography • Mountains: • Himalayas: tallest mountain range in the world • Mt. Everest – highest mountain in the world • Hindu-Kush: Khyber Pass makes movement between the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia • Protection from weather and invaders; cause for great weather problems as well
Geography • Plains – benefit from three rivers meeting • Indo-Gangetic: Pakistan to Bangladesh • Fertile land to grow crops • Rivers – • Ganges: most holy river – starts in Himalayas and meets Brahamaputra in Bangladesh • Indus (means river): longest, earliest civilization started in its valley
Geography • Desert – Thar • Herding and grazing of sheep and goats • Monsoons – seasonal winds and rain dominate India’s climate • Cycle: • May to June – Wet (rain) • October – Dry (winds) • Key to life for farmers: if late tiny plants die and famine; if early too much rain and famine
Conclusion: • Regionalism: geographic features have tended to isolate and separate people • This can lead to disunity which leads to…… Which leads to ……
Imperialism • Early 1700’s Mughals loose their power and the British East India Company begins to take over the trading and the empire
Brightest Jewel of the Crown • Large amounts of land • Raw materials of: • Tea • Indigo (dye) • Cotton • Coffee • Opium (very beneficial)
While Ruling India…. • British introduce education and law • Gave them a European Education • Introduced European Law and Government jobs – bureaucracy • Rid India of its uncivilized industry and way of life
British Improve India • Railroad system • Roadways • Telegraph and Telephone Lines • Dams, Bridges, and canals • Sanitation and public health systems • End of local warfare with competing rulers
Problems • East India Company becomes unpopular (1850s) • Sepoy Rebellion – 1857 • Hindu and Muslim soldiers • Turning point
Crown Takes over… • As a result: • Indian is now officially a possession • Increased distrust of British
Strength to Superiority • Rather than use their power for good, the British use their power to rule over the people of India and concern themselves with only their concerns and not the Indians
Negative Aspects • Cottage industries were ended and the British instituted more industrial forms of production • Cash crops were the focus – leading to famine in the late 1800s • Superiority becomes racism
Desperate Times call for… • Tired by oppression and discrimination the Indians develop a strong sense of nationalism - pride and loyalty to one’s country • Desperate measures: • Indian National Congress (1855) • Muslim League (1906) • Push for changes and self government
Gandhi Packet • Map – • Mostly Muslim: E & W Pakistan • Mostly Hindu: India • Mostly Sikh: Kashmir • Mostly Buddhist: China and Nepal
Indian Nationalism • The majority of support came from the middle caste – that were educated in the European System • WWI (1913-1917) spurs the push for independence • If we can fight we can lead • We were promised more self-government if we fought. • Like any other region in the world??????
Indian Nationalism • Since the mid-1700s GB had controlled India • Nearly 3 million Indians had fought in World War I • They had been promised more self-government • After the War, Britain did not fulfill their promises of less control • Britain continued their domination and sometimes brutal tactics
Amritsar Massacre – Boiling Point • Britain responds with a series of new laws • Limited freedom of the press and other rights • Outlawed all public meetings (British are scared)
Amritsar Massacre – Boiling Point • Nationalists defy the British and 10,000 Indians gather in the public courtyard of Amritsar (April 13, 1919) • British troops are ordered to fire on the crowd without ANY warning
Amritsar Massacre – Boiling Point • Mass chaos – no where to escape the bullets • After the firing ended over 370 were killed and 1200 were injured – included children and women • Massacre was the last straw – Indians needed to rid their country of British rule!
Mohandas Ghandi • Who was he? • Leader who united the Indian Nationalist movement (He helped India gains its independence) • From a Middle Class Hindu family • Lawyer
Mohandas Ghandi • Believed in SARYAGRAHA “truth force” or nonviolent resistance. • Non-violence is also called Civil Disobedience – refusal to obey unjust laws • Believed the only way to get more respect from the people who hate you is to use non-violence
Boycotting – refusal to buy British goods Peaceful Demonstrations Hunger Strike Homespun Movement NO British fabric The Salt March British tax on Salt 200 mile march Hunger Strike Protested Westernization and British rule An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind.
India’s Independence… from British Rule • How? • Ghandi played a major role • Using non-violent resistance • AKA? Meaning? • Results? • India gained independence in 1947
Indian Independence • Results? 1) India gained independence in 1947 • Gandhi murdered by a Hindu extremist in 1948 • First Prime Minister of India in 1947 was Jawaharlal Nehru – fought for a secular India one without the caste system 2) Muslim and Hindu Conflict increases
Muslim and Hindu Conflict • Most Indians were Hindu, but there was a minority of Muslim (ie Muslim League) • Tensions brew and each want their own independent India • How it was solved? – partitioned India into a Muslim (Pakistan) and a Hindu (India)
Muslim Hindu Conflict Escalates • Mass Migration – 15 million people moved to their respective religious country • Death and disputes got worse • There are still disputes today between the countries. • Border Disputes; nuclear threats • Today India is the largest Hindu nation with 1 billion people today
Modern Politics • Nehru dynasty of Prime Ministers • 1966 Indira Gandhi became PM, assassinated in 1984 • 1984 Rajiv Gandhi became PM, assassinated in 1991 • Worked to modernize India and end the caste system