Writing application letters
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Writing Application Letters. What you’re sending,why you’re sending it and how the reader can benefit from reading your material Be specific Never volunteer salary information unless an employer asks for it Keep it short Show some personality Aim for high quality.

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Writing application letters
Writing Application Letters

  • What you’re sending,why you’re sending it and how the reader can benefit from reading your material

  • Be specific

  • Never volunteer salary information unless an employer asks for it

  • Keep it short

  • Show some personality

  • Aim for high quality

Solicited versus unsolicited
Solicited versus Unsolicited

  • Solicited Application Letter: In response to an announced job opening, should know requirements of the organization

  • Unsolicited Application Letter: To an organization that has not announced an opening. Focus on the needs of the employer, start by capturing the reader’s attention and interest

Organizing application letters
Organizing Application Letters

  • Getting Attention:Use AIDA (Attention-Interest-Desire-Action) approach, focus on your audience & emphasize reader benefits => Opening paragraph:

    1. Clearly state your reason for writing

    2. Give a recipient a reason to keep reading

Organizing application letters1
Organizing Application Letters

  • Middle Section: Expand on your opening, present a more complete picture of your strengths

  • Final Paragraph: Respectfully ask for specific action and make it easy for the reader to respond

Application follow ups
Application Follow-Ups

  • If application letter and resume fail to bring a response within a month, write to keep your file active

  • If kept on file, don’t hesitate to send a follow-up letter 3 months later to show that you’re still interested showing that: You’ve continued to add to your skills or that you’ve learned more about the company or the industry


  • Discussion with a purpose

  • Include facial expressions, eye contact, gestures & posture

  • May cause misunderstanding & confusion => develop strong interviewing skills

Understanding the interview process
Understanding the Interview Process

  • Employment Interviews have a dual purpose:

    • Finding the best person available for the job

    • Your main objective: Finding the best job suitable for your goals & capabilities

Typical sequence of interviews
Typical Sequence of Interviews

  • Stages:

    I) Screening Stage: Campus, invitation of the candidates for further evaluation, similar questions, standardized “evaluation” , Get-to-know-you interviews.

    • Follow the interviewer’s lead; keep your responses short, differentiate yourself from others, emphasize the “theme” you used in developing your CV.

Ii selection stage
II) Selection Stage:

  • Will talk with several people

  • Show interest in the job

  • Relate your skills & experience to the organization’s needs

  • Listen attentively

  • Ask insightful questions

  • Display enthusiasm

Iii final stage
III) Final Stage:

  • May receive a job offer

  • May be invited back for final evaluation

  • Underlying objective: Selling you on the advantages of joining the organization

Common types of interviews
Common Types of Interviews

1) Structured Interview: Screening

  • Asking a series of prepared questions in order.

  • Answers noted

  • Poor measure of applicant’s quality

  • But create uniformity in hiring process

2 open ended interview
2) Open-ended Interview

  • Less formal & unstructured with a relaxed format

  • Open-ended questions, encourages you to talk freely

  • Good for bringing out your personality & testing professional judgment

3 group interviews
3) Group Interviews

  • Meeting with several candidates to see how they react

  • Useful for judging interpersonal skills

    4) Stress Interview: Help recruiters see how you handle yourself under pressure; Pause for a few seconds to collect your thoughts, then continue knowing what the interviewer is up to.

5 video interview
5) Video Interview

  • Videoconferencing systems to screen middle-management candidates

  • To interview new recruits at universities

  • Speak clearly but not more slowly than normal

  • Look up but not down

  • Sit straight

  • Arrive early enough to get used to the equipment

6 situational behavioral interview
6) Situational (Behavioral) Interview

  • You’re asked to explain how you would handle(d) a specific set of circumstances

  • No correlation exists between how well people answer traditional interview questions & how well they perform on the job

    => Each job requires different mix of personality traits; Interviewer’s task is to find out whether you will be effective on the job.

What employers look for in an interview
What employers look for in an interview?

  • Suitability for the specific job is judged on the basis of:

    • Academic preparation

    • Work experience

    • Job-related personality traits

Preemployment testing
Preemployment Testing

  • Integrity tests: For ethical or legal issues

  • Personality tests: Used to assess general character or suitability for the demands of a specific situation

  • Job skills tests: Assess the competency to perform a job

  • Substance tests: Drug & alcohol testing

  • Background tests: Verifying credentials in CV, learning if you have a criminal history etc.

Preparing for a job interview
Preparing for a job interview:

  • Will help you perform better under pressure

  • Consider any cultural differences

  • Base your approach on what your audience expects

    I) Learn about the organization

Ii think ahead about questions
II) Think ahead about questions:

A) Planning for the Employer’s Questions: Your skills, achievements, goals, attitudes toward work & school, relationships with others, hobbies & interests or; (Table 15-2)

  • What was the hardest decision you ever had to make?

  • What are your greatest weaknesses?

  • What didn’t you like about previous jobs you’ve held?

  • Where do you want to be five years from now?

  • Tell me something about yourself

B planning questions of your own
B) Planning questions of your own:

  • You are responsible for deciding whether the work and the organization are compatible with your goals & values. Are these my kind of people. Examples:

    • Can I do this work?

    • Will I enjoy the work?

    • Is the job what I want?

    • Does the job pay what I’m worth?

    • What kind of person would I be working for?

    • What sort of future can I expect with this organization?

B planning questions of your own1
B) Planning questions of your own:

  • You don’t necessarily wait until the interviewer asks if you have any questions of your own; look for smooth ways to work prepared questions into the conversation

  • Impress the interviewer with your ability to organize be thorough by bringing a list of questions

  • Table 15-3

Bolster your confidence
Bolster Your Confidence

  • Make a better impression & make the whole process less stressful

  • Emphasize positive traits (warmth, wit, intelligence, charm)

  • Instead of dwelling your weaknesses focus on strengths

Polish you interview style
Polish you Interview Style

  • Competence & confidence are the foundation of your interviewing style

  • Enhance these by giving the interviewer an impression of poise, good manners & good judgment

  • Role-playing, videotaping or audiotaping

  • Nonverbal behavior; Eye contact, sit in attentive position, use frequent hand gestures => alert, assertive, dependable, confident, responsible & energetic: U.S.

  • Sound of your voice; the way you speak

  • Avoid: You know, like, um etc. Table 15-4

Plan to look good
Plan to Look Good

  • Dress conservatively (dark, solid color) and be well groomed

  • You DON’T need to spend a fortune on new clothes, but you do need to look clean, prepared and professional.

  • One of the best ways to look good is to smile at appropriate moments

  • Make professional appearance and habits a routine part of your day after you had the job; Meeting times, t-shirts etc. => sign of mutual respect

Be ready when you arrive
Be Ready when you arrive

  • Take a small notebook, a pen, list of the questions you want to ask, 2 copies of CV, outline of what you have learned about the organization

  • May also take your transcript, list of references, portfolio containing samples of your work, performance reviews, certificates of achievement

  • Arrive early & relax, bring stg. business-related to read. If opportunity available, express enthusiasm for the job. Checklist

Interviewing for success
Interviewing for success

  • Present a memorable “headline” at the screening stage

  • Cover all your strengths during selection stage; touch briefly on all your strengths, but explain 3 or 4 of your best qualifications

  • Emphasize your personality during a final interview

Every interview has these stages
Every interview has these stages:

I)The Warm-up: Most important, 20 sec.

  • Body language is important

  • Hand shaking

  • Seating

  • Let the interviewer start the discussion

  • Listening cues telling you what the interviewer is interested in knowing about you as a potential employee.

Ii the question and answer stage
II) The Question-and-Answer Stage

  • Questions & answers consume the greatest part of the interview

  • Dealing with questions: Let the interviewer lead the conversation, NEVER answer a question before he/she has finished asking it

  • Listening: Paying attention to both verbal & nonverbal messages help you

  • Fielding discriminatory questions: Related to your qualifications, information- personal, responding.

  • Table 15-5

Iii the close
III) The Close:

  • Concluding the interview with courtesy & enthusiasm

  • Discussing salary: Research salary ranges in your job, industry & geographic region before

  • Negotiating benefits may be one way to get more value from an employment package

  • Checklist

Interview notes
Interview Notes

  • Keep a written record of your job interviews

  • Briefly summarize the interviewer’s answers to your questions

  • Evaluate your performance during the interview

Following up after the interview
Following up after the interview

1) Thank-you-message: Express your thanks within 2 days

  • Acknowledge the interviewer’s time and courtesy, convey your continued interest and then ask politely for a decision

  • Keep your message brief and organize it like a routine message

  • Sound positive without sounding overconfident. Figure 15-3

2 message of inquiry
2) Message of Inquiry

  • If not taken an answer by the promised date or within 2 weeks

  • Appropriate if received a job offer from a second firm

  • Follow the model for a direct request

3 request for a time extension
3) Request for a time extension

  • Preface your request with a friendly opening; ask for more time, stressing your enthusiasm for the organization

  • Conclude by allowing for a quick decision if your request for additional time is denied

  • Ask for a prompt reply confirming the time extension if the organization grants it

  • Direct request, but be careful to show your continued interest.

4 letter e mail of acceptance
4) Letter (e-mail) of acceptance

  • When you receive a job offer that you want to accept, reply within 5 days

  • Begin by accepting the position & expressing thanks

  • Cover any necessary details

  • Conclude by saying that you look forward to reporting for work

  • Be careful: Legally binding contract

  • Positive letter: Should convey your enthusiasm & eagerness to cooperate

5 letter declining a job offer
5) Letter declining a job offer

  • The model for negative messages

  • Open warmly, state the reasons for refusing the offer

  • Decline the offer explicitly & close on a pleasant note, expressing gratitude

  • By taking the time to write a sincere, tactful letter, you leave the door open for future contact.

6 letter of resignation
6) Letter of resignation

  • Should always be written in a gracious & professional style that avoids criticism of your employer or your colleagues

  • Follow the bad news plan & make the letter sound positive

  • Say stg. favorable about the organization, people or what you’ve learned in the job

  • State your intention to leave & give the date of your last day on the job

  • Give at least 2 weeks notice Checklist