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BIO 110, Life Science. Summer 2012. Genetic populations. Genetic diversity over time Genetic drift Gene flow Effects of selection What this means for speciation. Phylogeny. Genealogy of asexual reproduction Genealogy of sexual reproduction Genealogy of species (= phylogeny).

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genetic populations
Genetic populations
  • Genetic diversity over time
  • Genetic drift
  • Gene flow
  • Effects of selection
  • What this means for speciation
phylogeny
Phylogeny
  • Genealogy of asexual reproduction
  • Genealogy of sexual reproduction
  • Genealogy of species (= phylogeny)
how do we discern relationship
How do we discern relationship?
  • Every organism contains within it traces of its entire evolutionary history
  • Homology: similarity based on common descent
  • Homoplasy: false homology
    • Called “analogy” in the text; analogy is a specific kind of homoplasy
reconstructing phylogeny
Reconstructing phylogeny
  • Shared unique homology
  • Monophyletic group = clade
  • Looking at tetrapods
slide6

Amphibians

tetrapodlimb

lactation, 4-ch heart, hair

Mammals

shell

Turtles

amnion

Lizards

no limbs

Snakes

Crocodiles

4-ch heart

feathers

Birds