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How to discover and to assure my quality????. Workshop in the framework of the 2 nd KNUST Summerschool August 20 -24, 2012. Ton Vroeijenstijn Quality Consultants The Netherlands. Expected learning outcomes After the training session, it is expected that you will be able:.

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how to discover and to assure my quality
How to discover and to assure my quality????

Workshop in the framework of the 2nd KNUST Summerschool

August 20 -24, 2012

Ton Vroeijenstijn

Quality Consultants

The Netherlands

expected learning outcomes after the training session it is expected that you will be able
Expected learning outcomesAfter the training session, it is expected that you will be able:

to describe the concepts of “quality” and “quality assurance” in Higher Education

to participate in the on-going discussion about quality

Contribute to the implementation of a quality assurance system in your university/faculty

to discover the quality of your university/faculty by means of a self assessment

to prepare your programmes for an external assessment / accreditation.

program tuesday 21 august 2012
Program Tuesday, 21 August 2012

Introduction into quality and quality assurance (09.30 -12.00 a.m)

Without QA, no university will survive (Why quality assurance is needed)

Are we speaking the same language?

Quality assurance instruments (13.00-16.30)

How to assure our quality?

An X-ray of your university

Wednesday 22 August 2012

How to discover the quality of our programmes? The instrument of Self assessment (09.00-10.00)

A Road map to Quality’ Is the IUCEA handbook a valuable instrument for KNUST?

Open questions and discussion (11.30-12.00)

why quality assurance is needed
Why Quality assurance is needed

More students, less money

Rise of private institutions

Growing competition

Changing expectations labour market


Tax payer want value for money

“ Consumer” protection

QA in Industry
  • TQM-Deming cycle
  • ISO
  • EFQM
quality assurance in he
Quality Assurance in HE
  • Assurance of quality in higher education is a process of establishing stakeholder confidence that provision (input, process and outcomes) fulfils expectations or measures up to threshold minimum requirements. (Harvey, 2004, Analytic Quality Glossary)
  • Systematic, structured and continuous attention to quality in terms of maintaining and improving quality. ( IUCEA handbook A Roadmap to quality)
important elements of the qa system he
Important elements of the QA system HE

Self assessment

External peer review

(Public) report

Formal decision (accreditation)

Follow up

individual assignment 10 minutes
Individual assignment(10 minutes)

You are a member of the QA-committee. It is your first meeting and the basic aim of the meeting is to come to a mutual understanding of the concept “quality”

  • Describe how you define quality
  • Give the 5 most important criteria for the quality of an Institutions for HE
  • Give the 5 most important criteria for the quality of a curriculum
basic questions concerning quality
Basic questions concerning quality

What is quality?

Who are the players in the quality game?

Can quality be measured? (Criteria and standards)

Who set the standards?

how do we know the quality?


higher education players in the quality field
HIGHER EDUCATIONPlayers in the quality field



Government / parliament

employers/professional bodies

society at large

international forum


different views on quality
  • Quality is the satisfaction of the client
  • Quality as excellence
  • Quality as additional value
  • Quality as value for money
  • Quality as fitness for purpose
  • Quality as meeting threshold standards

Absolute Quality does not exist

There is no fixed definition of Quality

View on Quality is changing in time

But we must find a workable concept, shared by all



Is context based

But there is always a threshold quality


International standards

University Rio de Janeiro

National standards

University of the Amazonas


criteria standards
Criteria & standards


the specification of elements against which a judgment is made

a specific aspect, essential for the quality

Standard: the level that a criterion must reach. Normally: adequate or satisfactory. Sometimes quantifiable


criteria standards1
Criteria & standards

Who is setting standards?

Who is checking the standards?

Because there is no absolute quality, there are no absolute standards; standards are a matter of negotiation.

Criteria: valid in all circumstances

Standards: context bound: Mc Donald and 3 stars restaurant


can quality be measured
Can Quality be measured?

Tendency of governments to quantify quality aspects

Use of performance indicators?

But….performance indicators does not tell us all about the quality

“Performance indicators may harm the quality”


Performance indicators and quality assessment


% alcohol







expert team


key questions

Do we do the right things?

Do we do the right things in the right way?

Do we have a thorough command of the process to realize actually what we want?

Do we really achieve what we want to achieve?


instruments to discover the quality
Instruments to discover the quality

Analysis of our QA system

Analysis at institutional level

Analysis at program level

towards an iqa system
Towards an IQA system
  • Internal Quality Assurance is:

Systematic, structured and continuous attention to quality in terms of maintaining and improving quality. IUCEA handbook A Roadmap to quality)

implementation iqa system
Implementation IQA-system

there is no one fit for all

IQA system is tailor made, but ….

Requirements set by out side agencies

Code of good practice ENQA, INQAAHE, UNESCO


criteria for iqa enqa


Policy and procedures for QA


Monitoring system


Periodic review of the core activities


Quality assurance of the student assessment


Quality assurance of staff


Quality assurance of facilities


Quality assurance of the student support


Self assessment


Internal audit


Information systems


Public information


A Quality handbook


basic conditions for iqa
Basic conditions for IQA

As simple as possible and not bureaucratic

Balance between centralized and decentralized approach

Supported by management

Effective instruments

Tuned to national and international developments


problems with the introduction of iqa
Problems with the introduction of IQA

Lack of quality awareness

Resistance against innovations

Resistance of staff because they feel threatened

Lack of knowledge about QA. Training is needed.

resistance because it is time consuming and money consuming (“We have other things to do”).

It is difficult to define what quality is; the QA indicators are not always clear;

The purpose and the added value are not always clear

Lack of clear communication between the staff and the institutions management


to overcome the problems it is important to
To overcome the problems it is important to:

Understand clearly what Quality Assurance means;

Know the available instruments;

Know about the requirements set for an IQA system

Design the system very clearly and formulate the strategy to introduce it

Tune the system to external developments.


individual assignment 2 10 minutes
Individual assignment 2 (10 minutes)

You are still a member of the QA-committee. It is your 2nd meeting and the basic aim of the meeting is to analyse what is already done for Quality Assurance and to discuss the possibility foir introducing the IQA model.


  • What elements are already in place in the university?
  • Is the model useful in your situation to analyse your activities concerning quality assurance?
  • Which activities belongs to the responsibility of the central management? Which one to the responsibilities of the faculty? What are joint activities?
an institutional self assessment
An institutional self assessment

Provide us information about the performance of the institution

Offer the possibility to define clearly our profile

Input for strategic planning

how to discover the quality of our programs
How to discover the quality of our programs??

A program is defined as a coherent set of courses leading to a certain degree (bachelor or master).

We may call the program also a curriculum

It is not only about the content, but also about the process and the boundary conditions

conditions for self analysis

A self assessment:

should never be felt as threatening

aims at improvement and enhancement

need a broad support; Everybody has to be involved.

Need support of the management

demands a good organisation.

is an analysis supported by the whole faculty

Not everyone has to agree with all the points in the self-assessment report.


Look at the given criteria and explanation

Describe the situation

Give a critical analysis

Are you satisfied with the situation

If not what you are you planning to do?

Look for evidence that you are meeting the criteria

Give the weak and strong points

The guide for analysis


the 7 point scale read as follows
The 7-point scale read as follows

1= absolutely inadequate; immediate improvements must be made

2= inadequate, improvements necessary

3= inadequate, but minor improvements will make it adequate

4= adequate as expected

5= better than adequate

6= example of good practice

7= excellent


the follow up of the self assessment
The follow-up of the self-assessment

In many cases followed by accreditation

If not: organize an inter-collegial assessment

Outcomes of the SWOT-analysis is used for a quality plan

Each year check of the quality plan


the quality project east africa
The quality project East Africa

June 2006 workshop “Supporting a regional QA initiative” organised by IUCEA an DAAD

Developing handbook

Training QA officers

2008 -2009: 23 universities SA+External

2009-2010: second cohort

2011: external evaluation of the project

2012-2013 3rd cohort

why an iucea quality handbook was seen as needed
Why an IUCEA quality handbook was seen as needed

Development in the region of

a shared idea of quality

harmonized internal quality assurance systems

a shared idea about criteria and standards

shared ideas about the accreditation framework


a road map to quality
A Road Map to quality

Initiative of the IUCEA 2006, supported by DAAD and HRK of Germany


on documents and experiences of the national regulatory bodies in East Africa

Based on similar developments in South-East Asia, Central America and Europe

Editorial board with members of the standing committee of the IUCEA

Discussion of drafts at the different workshops

5th draft used by the 1st cohort of universities

Revised draft (4 volumes ) by 2nd cohort

Endorsed by IUCEA and official publication June 2009 (


contents of the handbook
Contents of the handbook
  • Volume 1

Guidelines for Self- assessment at program level aims at the faculty/department offering an instrument to learn more about the quality of the programs at offer by means of an effective self assessment at program level

  • Volume 2:

Guidelines for external assessmentexplainsthe procedures and processes for an external assessment at program level. The specific target group is the external expert team, but also the faculty/department to be assessed.

  • Volume 3:

Guidelines for Self-assessment at institutional level aims especially at the central management of an institution and offers an instrument to discover more about the quality of the institution

  • Volume 4:

The implementation of a Quality Assurance system aims at all level of an institution, but is especially useful for the Quality Assurance coordinators for the development and installation of an Internal Quality Assurance system


how to use the handbook
How to use the handbook
  • The handbook is not forcing an institution to apply fixed standards and ideas
  • It is voluntary, but…….. members of IUCA should play the rules of the game
  • For private institutions: it will help to be in line with international developments
  • The handbook offers a toolkit for quality assurance and quality improvement.
Central management can use the handbook to discuss and implement a quality policy

The Quality-officer can use the handbook to promote quality assurance in the institution and to facilitate the quality process in the university. The handbookcontains basic materialsfor training sessions.

Faculty deans can use the instrument for self assessment at program level and provide staff and students with basic background information

Staff and students can use the handbook for better understanding of the need of quality assurance and also for a better understanding of the instruments.



assignment for the case study
Assignment for the case study

You are a member of a committee, installed by the Senate, to develop ideas about the implementation of Quality assurance in your institution. You are invited to write a report for the Senate with a strategic plan.

The Senate made clear you must make an analysis of the current situation and see what should be done to get a robust QA-system

Furthermore, the Senate like to organise in 2013 some program evaluations and in 2014 an institutional self evaluation.