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WM5 The synthesis of salicylic acid and aspirin. Synthesis is better than harvesting. Chemists can synthesise (artificially produce) compunds, once the structure is known. Phenol’s germicidal properties were well known by the end of 19 th Century.

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Presentation Transcript
synthesis is better than harvesting
Synthesis is better than harvesting
  • Chemists can synthesise (artificially produce) compunds, once the structure is known.
  • Phenol’s germicidal properties were well known by the end of 19th Century.
  • Phenol (a product from heating coal) was readily available.
  • 2-hydroxybenzoic acid has 1 extra functional group, compared to phenol.
how is phenol converted into 2 hydroxybenzoic acid
How is phenol converted into 2-hydroxybenzoic acid?
  • Draw the structures of phenol and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid.
  • What extra atoms need to be added to phenol?
  • What conditions and reagents are needed? (research this).
kolbe schmitt synthesis
Kolbe –Schmitt synthesis
  • Kolbe (1874) produced salicylic acid from dry sodium phenoxide in a stream of carbon dioxide at 150 – 160 °C. He found that the yield was only 50%.
  • Schmitt (1884) increased the yield to 90% by increasing the pressure to 5 bar (7atm), until no more CO2 was taken up.
on an industrial scale
On an industrial scale…
  • Felix Hoffmann developed process for the Bayer company.
  • Unpleasant side-effects on mouth, gullet and stomach.
  • Hoffmann modified the structure and tested products on his rheumatic father!
  • 1898 – 2-ethanoylhydroxybenzoic acid (aka acetylsalicylic acid OR aspirin) produced
aspirin made by esterification
Aspirin: made by esterification
  • Aspirin is an ester O
  • Functional group R-C-O-R’
  • Alcohol + acid  ester
  • Aspirin is not very soluble in water so it became the first medicine to be sold as tablets.