4 Components • When we look at exercise physiology there are 4 main components: • The Heart • The Lungs • The Muscles • Energy Systems
What’s the Point? • By knowing basic information in relation to these areas we can begin to understand the impact that exercise has on these. This enables us to have a greater understanding of how to train and what should occur.
The Love Organ • Despite being the very organ that enables us to fall in and experience love it also has a very real role in enabling us to fall head over heals with someone else!
The Heart • The main functions of the heart are:
Terminology • Here is some terms that are relevant to the heart and exercise physiology and make you sound flash in your assignment: • Heart rate is simply the number of heart beats per minute. • Stroke volume is the volume of blood, in milliliters (mL), pumped out of the heart with each beat. • Cardiac output: is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute (mL blood/min). Cardiac Output in mL/min = heart rate (beats/min) X stroke volume (mL/beat)
The Lungs • The main functions of the lungs are:
Terminology • Here is some terms that are relevant to the lungs and exercise physiology and make you sound flash in your assignment: • Respiratory Volumes: is the amount of air inhaled, exhaled and stored within the lungs at any given time • Tidal Volume: the amount of air which enters the lungs during normal inhalation at rest
ATP-CP System • Replenishes ATP rapidly by breaking down Creatine Phosphate releasing energy to reform ATP • Short duration (<10 secs) • Active at the beginning of all forms of activities • Especially important in high intensity exercises like weight lifting that require short bursts of energy. • Only a small quantity of PC can be stored. Athletes do try to load up with supplements
Anaerobic • Breakdown of carbohydrates (glycolysis) for fuel when without oxygen eg beginning of exercise or high intensity workout >85% of HRmax • Results in formation of lactic acid, which causes muscle fatigue • Last for 10 seconds to 2 minutes
Aerobic • Replenishes ATP with the use of oxygen • Efficient- 1 molecule- 36 ATP molecule • System works at rest and during very low intensity exercise • This form of energy primarily utilizes fats (75%) and carbohydrates (25%) as fuel sources, but as intensity is increased there is a switch from fats (25%) to carbohydrates (75%)
Muscle Structure • Muscles are necessary in order to create movement. There basic structure is as follows: • Tendon attaches to bone • Muscle • Fascicle (portion of muscle) • Muscle Fiber(cell) • Myofibril • Sarcomere (segment of a myofibril)
Mitochondria • Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.