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First-person- and third-person-oriented genericity in Russian. Elena Paducheva (Moscow) http://lexicograph.ruslang.ru/ firstname.lastname@example.org SPE-6 , St.Petersburg, 1 0-14 .0 6 .201 3.
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(1) a. Est’ mnogo slov, kotorye proiznosish’ po privychke ‘there are many words that <you> pronounce as a habit’.
b. Vechno tebja zhdesh’ (L.Tolstoj) ‘<you> always wait for you’ [ ‘one always has to wait for you’]
(2) S nachal’stvom ne posporish’ ‘with the authorities <you> won’t argue’.
(3) Chto ty budesh’ delat’ s bessovestnymi ljud’mi! ‘what will you do with dishonest people!’
(4) Podi dokazhi, chto ty ne verbljud ‘go and prove that you are not a camel’.
(5) Oxotno my darim, chto nam ne nadobno samim ‘gladly we give <to others> what we need not ourselves’.
(6) S vozrastom chelovek stanovitsja bolee snisxoditelen k ljudskim slabostjam ‘with age, a person becomes more forgiving of human weaknesses’.
“(1a)” One can see the picture from the entrance =
(Ra) Etu kartinu mozhno videt’ ot vxoda = ‘it is possible to see the picture from the entrance’
(Rb) *Etu kartinu mozhesh’ videt’ ot vxoda, lit. ‘<you> can see the picture from the entrance’;
(Rc) ?Etu kartinu vidish’ ot vxoda, lit. ‘<you> see the picture from the entrance’;
(Rd) ?Etu kartinu ty mozhesh’ videt’ ot vxoda, lit. ‘you can see the picture from the entrance’.
(7) Tebja ne ubediš’ lit.‘<you> won’t persuade you’ = ‘it’s impossible to persuade you’;
(8) Nichego ne podelaeš’! ‘<you’ll>do nothing’ = ‘nothing to do’;
(9) Razve vse zapomniš’? ‘whether <you>remember everything?’;
(10) V tramvae krasivuju zhenshchinu ne vstretiš’ ‘in a tram <you> won’t meet a beautiful woman’.
(2) S nachal’stvom ne posporiš’ ‘with the authorities <you> won’t argue’.
(11) Ozvereesh’ ot takoj zhizni ‘<you’ll > become a beast because of the life like this’.
(12) Tishe edeš’ – dal’she budeš’ (Russian proverb) ‘the slower <you> go the further <you’ll> get’.
(13) a. Xorošo, chtou tebja est’ dom [referential ty] ‘it’s good thatyou have a house’.
b. Xorošo, kogdau tebja est’ dom [generic ty] ‘it’s good whenyou have a house’.
(14) Slovo ne vorobej, vyletit – ne pojmaeš’ ‘a word is not a sparrow – if it flies away <you> won’t catch it’.
(15) Znaesh’, na rabote ja tak vymatihvajus’. Ezdiš’ po Moskve so vsyakimi inostrancami, gid-perevodchik. <...> Menya mutit ot zvukov angliyjskoyj rechi. <...>. Tak chto do domu dobereš’sya – i nikuda. (A. Gladilin). ‘You know I’m so exhausted at work. <You> go back and forth through Moscow with foreigners, as a guide-translator <...>I feel sick from the sounds of English speech. So <you> get home and cannot move anywhere.’
(16) Odnazhdy obnaruzhivaeš’, chto tebja net. Ty razbit na tysjachu kuskov, i u kazhdogo kuska svoj glaz, nos, uxo. (L.Ulickaja. People of our king) ‘one day <you> find out that you do not exist. You are broken into thousand of pieces, and each piece has its own eye, nose, ear’
(17) S toboj ser’ezno razgovarivaeš’, a ty kak balabolka, lit. “<you> speak seriously to you and you behave as a chatterbox” = ‘I speak seriously to you, as I used to, and you behave as a chatterbox’.
(18) No kak postupit’, kogda chuzhdoe segodnjashnemu dnju zhilo v nem samom <…>. S soboj ved’ ne porvesh’, ne perestanesh’ vstrechat’sja. [V.Grossman. Life and fate] ‘But what to do when something alien to today’s life was alive in himself <…>. <You> cannot break with yourself, stop meeting yourself’.
(1c) John thinks that one can see the picture from the entrance. ”
(R1c) John sčitaet, čto ètu kartinu možno videt’ ot vxoda ‘John thinks that it is possible to see the picture from the entrance’;
(R1c’) **John sčitaet, chto ètu kartinu vidiš’ ot vxoda [lit. ‘John believes that <you> see the picture from the entrance’]
(19) Kak neprijatno videt’, chto ty chto-to terjaesh’ v glazax ljudej ottogo, chto goloden i beden. ‘How unpleasant <for you> it is to realize that youlose something in the eyes of the people because <you> are hungry and poor’. (example from Zalizniak Anna 2012)
(8a) One sometimes thinks one’s life is too short.
(20) Inogda dumaeš’, čto tvojažizn’ sliškom korotka ‘sometimes <you> think that your life is too short’.
(21) Cypljat po oseni schitajut ‘<they> count chickens in the automn’ [generic use of the 3d person PRO].
1. Generic 1st person PRO refers, in the first place, to the speaker; while the 3d person PRO rather excludes the speaker. In (22) the speaker opposes himself to those who revile the autumn:
(22) Dni pozdnej oseni branjat obyknovenno. No mne ona mila (Pushkin) ‘Days of the late automn – <they> scold them usually. But for me it [i.e. the automn] is nice’.
(23) a. Kogda uezžajt, ostavljajut adres. A ja ne ostavila. ‘when <they> go away <they> leave the address, but I didn’t’.
b. Kogda uezžaeš’, ostavljaeš’ adres. *A ja ne ostavila. ‘when <you> go away <you> leave the address, but I didn’t’.
(24) Podal’she polozhiš’, poblizhe voz’meš’ ‘the farther <you> put <something> the safer <you>take it back’;
(25) Po plat’ju vstrečajut, po umu provožajut ‘<they> meet you according to your dress, <they> see you off according to your wit’.
(26) Skoro begut – dal’nix ne zhdut ‘when <they> run fast <they> do not wait for those behind’.
(27) Esli by vybory mogli čto-to izmenit’, ix davno by otmenili ‘if elections could have influenced anything <they> would have prohibited them long ago’.
(28) Esli ty angel, ty ni čelovek, ni božestvo ‘if you are an angel you are neither human nor divine’.