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The Washington Presidency. 1789 Election Unanimous Candidate Would Rather Retire Civil Duty Image Not proper to “Run” for President. Ladies & Gentlemen, The President of the United States John Adams Vice-President “Your Highness the President of the United States” The Cabinet

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The washington presidency
The Washington Presidency

1789 Election

Unanimous Candidate

Would Rather Retire

Civil Duty Image

Not proper to “Run” for President

Ladies & Gentlemen, The President of the United States

John Adams


“Your Highness the President of the United States”

The Cabinet

Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of State

Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of Treasury

Henry Knox

Secretary of War

The washington presidency1
The Washington Presidency

Hamilton’s Fiscal Policy

Report on the Public Credit

Gov’t assume all state debt-past 15 years

Validity to Government

Domestic & Foreign

1st National Bank of the United States

Strict v. Loose

Strict Constructionist


Loose Constructionist


Report on Manufactures

Nurture “infant industries”

A Split in the Cabinet

National Bank

Interpretation of Constitution

Jefferson-Sec. Of State

Strict Constructionist

Hamilton-Sec. Of Treasury

Loose Constructionist

The dinner
The Dinner

Jefferson’s Account

Only record of event

The players

Alexander Hamilton

James Madison

The Issue

Hamilton’s Fiscal Plan

Southern Opposition

Assumption of state debts

The Compromise of 1790

Move Capital to Chesapeake Region

Madison supports

Fiscal Plan Pass

Hamilton supports

July 9, 1790

Residence Bill


July 26, 1790

Assumption Bill


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The Washington Presidency

The Whiskey Rebellion

Summer 1794

Excise Tax

Luxury Tax

Purpose of Taxes?

Western Pennsylvania

Alexander Hamilton

Left NY to lead Militia

Presidential Aspirations

Federal Authority

Commitment to Union

Protection of Western Boundary

National Supremacy

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The Washington Presidency

Jay’s Treaties

The Treaty Itself

British Withdrawal by 1796

Limited Trade with British East & West Indies

Most Favored Nation

Enjoy benefits equal to those the other accorded any state

Hamiltonian Victory

American Neutrality

French Revolution

Pinckney’s Treaty

The Treaty Itself

31st Parallel

Shipping Rights on Mississippi

The washington presidency4
The Washington Presidency

Washington’s Farewell Address


“Prop of your liberty”

Political Parties

“baneful effects of the spirit of party”

Foreign Affairs

“extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible”

Washington’s Legacy

Daily routine established

Mr. President

Two Terms Limit

Not law until 1951

Military Service

Symbol of leadership

The first american party system
The First American Party System

Federalist Party

John Adams

Strong Federal Government

Friendship with Britain

Opposition to French Revolution



Property Owners

Urban Workers

Democratic Republican Party

Thomas Jefferson

Opposition to Federalists

Limited Federal Power

Sympathetic to French Revolution

Hostile to Britain


Southern Planters

Northern Farmers

1796 election
1796 Election

  • John Adams

    • 71 Electoral Votes

  • Thomas Jefferson

    • 68 Electoral Votes

      *No Vice Presidential Candidates

The adams presidency
The Adams Presidency

USS Constellation

  • The Quasi-War

    • Undeclared War

      • 1798-1800

      • Fought almost entirely at sea

        • USA & France

  • Background

    • American Revolution

      • Alliance & Connection

        • France betrayed in their Revolution

    • Began Seizing American Ships

      • Mostly Caribbean

USS Constellation and the Insurgente

The adams presidency1
The Adams Presidency

X, Y, Z Affair

Jay’s Treaty

Undercut French Revolution

Freed Britain to support French Monarchy

French Response

300 American Vessels

Cargoes confiscated-$20 Million

An American Delegation

Charles Pinckney

John Marshall

Elbridge Gerry

The Bribe

Tribute to speak to Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

Adam’s Response

Pinckney =X

Marshall =Y

Gerry =Z

“Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”

The adams presidency2
The Adams Presidency

Alien & Sedition Acts

The Acts

Naturalization Act

5 years to 14 years


Alien Act & Alien Enemies Act

Imprisonment & deportation of Aliens in wartime

Sedition Act

Writing, Publishing, or Speaking against the government

Fines & Imprisonment


Democratic Republicans Rise

Immigrants were increasingly aligning with Jefferson

The Virginia & Kentucky Resolves

Penned by Madison & Jefferson

State v. Federal Authority

Nullify “unconstitutional” laws

Judicial Review not defined power

Marbury v. Madison

The adams presidency3
The Adams Presidency

The Revolution of 1800

The Scheme

Run 2 candidates

Secure VP

The Federalists

John Adams-65

Charles Pinckney-64

Democratic Republicans

Thomas Jefferson-73

Aaron Burr-73

The House of Representatives

Settles Election disputes

Alexander Hamilton

Detested Burr

Republican agrarianism
Republican Agrarianism

Clearly Defined Political Philosophy

Three Presidents

Thomas Jefferson (1801-09)

James Madison (1809-17)

James Monroe (1817-25

True Republicanism


Feared extremes in wealth

Too European

Problem with Europe

No room to grow

Rooted in Agrarian Society

Nation of Small Farms

Subsistence Farmers

Weather Cycles

Kept man close to God

The Virginia Dynasty

The midnight judges
The Midnight Judges

The Judiciary Act of 1801

President John Adams

Political Ploy

Fill Government with Federalists

Holding down the Fort

The Act Itself

16 New Judgeships

6 New Circuit Courts

The Midnight Judges

Image of John Adams signing appointments

Midnight on last day in office

Chief Justice John Marshall

Former Sec. Of State

A Midnight Judge

Failed responsibility

Sec. Of State to deliver Appointments

James Madison

Jefferson’s Sec. Of State

Marbury v. Madison

The Decision

Jefferson Victory

Paper not needed

Jefferson Defeat

Judicial Review a Court Matter

The louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase

Napoleon Bonaparte

Seized control of France

Conquering Europe & world

Napoleonic Wars 1803-1815

Spanish Conquest

Napoleon closed Mississippi to USA

The Purchase

James Monroe

New Orleans

Original intent

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

All of Louisiana

$15 Million

A Personal Dilemma

Strict Constructionist

Purchasing Power Not Mentioned

Manifest Destiny

Lewis & Clarke Expedition

Zebulon Pike



  • Sacagawea

    • Shoshone woman who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition, acting as an interpreter and guide, in their exploration of the Western United States

    • Expedition

      • Helped Lewis and Clark wind a waterway to the Western United States

  • Death

    • Died on September 20th, 1812

    • Died at only age 24

The duel
The Duel

Aaron Burr

Still Vice President

Jefferson Hated

1804 Election

Jefferson Dropping Burr

Burr running for Governor of New York

Alexander Hamilton attacks Burr in papers

The Duel

Burr Challenges

Takes place in New Jersey

Heights of Weehawken

“This is a mortal wound, Doctor”-A. Hamilton

Pendleton & Van Ness

Joint Statement

Code Duello

Two Shots fired

The Aftermath

Murder in the 1st degree

New York & New Jersey


The non importation embargo act
The Non-Importation & Embargo Act

The Napoleonic Wars

British Blockade of Europe

American Neutrality Rights

Ships searched & cargo seized


Maintains Neutrality

“peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations”-1801 Inaugural Address


6,000 American citizens-forced imprisonment

The Non-Importation Act-1806

Boycott of British Goods

Worked in Revolution

The Embargo Act-1807

Anchored All American Ships

Forbade them from sailing to any foreign port

Cutting off ALL imports & exports

An Economic Disaster

Exports fell

$108 - 22 Million (1808)

The election of 1808
The Election of 1808

Democratic Republicans

James Madison

Jefferson’s Protégé

The Federalists

Charles Pinckney

The Results

Pinckney -47


War of 1812
War of 1812

The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

U.S.S. Chesapeake

Commodore James Barron

Norfolk, Virginia

H.M.S. Leopard

Salisbury Pryce Humphreys

The Incident

Humphreys requested to search The Chesapeake

Barron Refused

Humphreys opened fire

Killing 3

Injuring 18-including Barron

The Non-Intercourse Act-1809

Embargo Act-1807

Destroying U.S. economy

The Act Itself

Opens trade with all countries EXCEPT



Macon’s Bill #2-1810

Lifted Embargo on Britain & France

neutrality rights


Napoleon Approves

Britain Ignores

War of 18121
War of 1812

Tecumseh’s War

Indian Intercourse Act-1790

Acquire Indian land by Treaty only

Conflicted with westward expansion

Settlers who were attacked protected by U.S.

Tecumseh’s Alliance (1809-1811)

Effort to stop white infringement in Northwest

Believed Aided by Canada

Tenskwatawa-The Prophet

Tecumseh’s Brother

Preached return to tradition

Rejected White clothing, alcohol, & trading


William Henry Harrison

Hero of Tippecanoe


War of 18122
War of 1812

War Hawks

Politicians who Want War

Henry Clay (KY)

John C. Calhoun (SC)

Led movement for War


Forced to declare war

Unaware that Trade Embargo was working

England about to adopt more conciliatory policy

The Vote for War

House-79 to 49

Senate-19 to 13

All Federalists voted AGAINST the war

The Hartford Convention

Talk of secession

The United States of New England

Aaron Burr

To be 1st president

The star spangled banner
The Star Spangled Banner

1 of 2 surviving Broadsides

  • Defense of Fort McHenry

    • 1814-Francis Scott Key

      • Battle of Baltimore

        • Set to tune of British drinking song

          • John Stafford

          • Anacreontic Society

    • March 3, 1931

      • Made national anthem

  • Other Anthems

    • My Country,’Tis of Thee

    • Hail, Columbia

Copy of original manuscript

War of 18123
War of 1812

The Treaty of Ghent

John Q. Adams

Son of John Adams

Headed council

Status qou Ante Bellum

Relations prior to conflict

Last armed conflict with Britain

Signed Christmas Eve, 1814

The battle of new orleans
The Battle of New Orleans