presentation of final year project n.
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  2. INFORMATION:- • As our project name suggest it is based on energy saving. With the use of my project our home appliances run & control with microcontroller based system. • We here put our idea that lights run on “INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY PROCESS” .

  3. ABSRECT • Intelligent Energy Saving System can be used in places like where lighting is very important. • The libraries will be well illuminated with many lamps. When people are not present at a reading place the lighting can be made OFF and when they are present, the lighting made ON. All these can be done through by Dimming circuit and PIR sensor. •   If a person entering to the monitored area, the PIR sensors activates and sense the person, gives to the micro controller. The Infrared energy emitted from the living body is focused by a Fresnel lens segment. Then only the PIR sensor activates. After sensing the person LDR checks the light intensity of the monitored area, whether it is bright or dark. Depending on the LDR output, the lamp may be ON / OFF by using Dimmer circuit.


  5. EQUIPMENTS:- • Printed Circuit Board • Micro controller  PIC 8051 • 5V, 12V Dc Power supply • IR sensor  Passive Infrared Sensor • LDR  Light Dependent Resistor • Thermostat • LCD Optrax, 2 line by 16 characters • Zero Crossing Detector • Lamp • Fan

  6. EQUIPMENTS DETAILS:- • OPTOCOUPLER: - Optocoupler is a device that uses a short optical transmission path to transfer a signal between elements of a circuit, typically a transmitter and a receiver, while keeping them electrically isolated. A common implementation involves a LED and a phototransistor, separated so that light may travel across a barrier but electrical current may not. • DIMMER: - Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and hence the mean power to the lamp it is possible to vary the intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to control lighting.

  7. PASSIVE INFRARED SENSOR(PIR):- A PIR detector is a motion detector that senses the heat emitted by a living body. These are often fitted to security lights so that they will switch on automatically if approached. They are very effective in enhancing home security systems. The sensor is passive because, instead of emitting a beam of light or microwave energy that must be interrupted by a passing person in order to “sense” that person, the PIR is simply sensitive to the infrared energy emitted by every living thing. When an intruder walks into the detector’s field of vision, the detector “sees” a sharp increase in infrared energy.


  9. ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR(ZCD):- • Zero crossing detectors as a group are not a well-understood application, although they are essential elements in a wide range of products. It has probably escaped the notice of readers who have looked at the lighting controller and the Linkwitz Cosine Burst Generator, but both of these rely on a zero crossing detector for their operation. • A zero crossing detector literally detects the transition of a signal waveform from positive and negative, ideally providing a narrow pulse that coincides exactly with the zero voltage condition. At first glance, this would appear to be an easy enough task, but in fact it is quite complex, especially where high frequencies are involved. In this instance, even 1 kHz starts to present a real challenge if extreme accuracy is needed.

  10. LDR:- • LDR’s or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. These help in automatically switching ON /OFF the street lights and etc., normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as very high as 1000000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light, resistance drop dramatically. Electronic opto sensors are the devices that alter their electrical characteristics, in the presence of visible or invisible light. The best-known devices of these types are the light dependent resistor (LDR), the photo diode and the phototransistors


  12. LCD DISPLAY:- A liquid crystal is a material (normally organic for LCD’s) that will flow like a liquid but whose molecular structure has some properties normally associated with solids. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a low power device. The power requirement is typically in the order of microwatts for the LCD. However, an LCD requires an external or internal light source. We are making use of LCD in our project to display the PIR mode and room temperature.


  14. About the 8051 • The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible". All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their own special features).

  15. FEATURES OF 8051:- • Some of the features that have made the 8051 popular are: • 4 KB on chip program memory. • 128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM). • 4 reg banks. • 128 user defined software flags. • 8-bit data bus • 16-bit address bus • 32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits • 16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have m

  16. 3 internal and 2 external interrupts. • Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes. • Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit ports). • 16-bit program counter and data pointer. • 1 Microsecond instruction cycle with 12 MHz Crystal. • 8051 models may also have a number of special, model-specific features, such as UARTs, ADC, OpAmps, etc...

  17. TYPICAL APPLICAIONS:- • 8051 chips are used in a wide variety of control systems, telecom applications, robotics as well as in the automotive industry. By some estimations, 8051 family chips make up over 50% of the embedded chip market.

  18. BASIC PINS:- • PIN 9: PIN 9 is the reset pin which is used reset the microcontroller’s internal registers and ports upon starting up. (Pin should be held high for 2 machine cycles.) • PINS 18 & 19: The 8051 has a built-in oscillator amplifier hence we need to only connect a crystal at these pins to provide clock pulses to the circuit. • PIN 40 and 20: Pins 40 and 20 are VCC and ground respectively. The 8051 chip needs +5V 500mA to function properly, although there are lower powered versions like the Atmel 2051 which is a scaled down version of the 8051 which runs on +3V.

  19. PINS 29, 30 & 31: As described in the features of the 8051, this chip contains a built-in flash memory. In order to program this we need to supply a voltage of +12V at pin 31. If external memory is connected then PIN 31, also called EA/VPP, should be connected to ground to indicate the presence of external memory. PIN 30 is called ALE (address latch enable), which is used when multiple memory chips are connected to the controller and only one of them needs to be selected.We will deal with this in depth in the later chapters. PIN 29 is called PSEN. This is "program store enable". In order to use the external memory it is required to provide the low voltage (0) on both PSEN and EA pins.

  20. PORTS:- • PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): The port P1 is a general purpose input/output port which can be used for a variety of interfacing tasks. The other ports P0, P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional functions associated with them based upon the context of their usage. • PORT P3 (Pins 10 to 17): PORT P3 acts as a normal IO port, but Port P3 has additional functions such as, serial transmit and receive pins, 2 external interrupt pins, 2 external counter inputs, read and write pins for memory access.

  21. PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): PORT P2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P2 will act as an address bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access external memory. PORT P2 acts as A8-A15, as can be seen from fig 1.1 • PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39) PORT P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P0 acts as a multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in conjunction with PORT P2. P0 acts as AD0-AD7.

  22. OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS:- • The 8051 requires the existence of an external oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit usually runs around 12MHz, although the 8051 (depending on which specific model) is capable of running at a maximum of 40MHz. Each machine cycle in the 8051 is 12 clock cycles, giving an effective cycle rate at 1MHz (for a 12MHz clock) to 3.33MHz (for the maximum 40MHz clock). The oscillator circuit that generates the clock pulses so that all internal operations are synchronized.


  24. DATA AND PROGRAM MEMORY:- • The 8051 Microcontroller can be programmed in PL/M, 8051 Assembly, C and a number of other high-level languages. Many compilers even have support for compiling C++ for an 8051. • Program memory in the 8051 is read-only, while the data memory is considered to be read/write accessible. When stored on EEPROM or Flash, the program memory can be rewritten when the microcontroller is in the special programmer circuit

  25. SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER:- • The Special Function Register (SFR) is the upper area of addressable memory, from address 0x80 to 0xFF. A, B, PSW, DPTR are called SFR.This area of memory cannot be used for data or program storage, but is instead a series of memory-mapped ports and registers. All port input and output can therefore be performed by memory mov operations on specified addresses in the SFR. Also, different status registers are mapped into the SFR, for use in checking the status of the 8051, and changing some operational parameters of the 8051.

  26. GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER:- • The 8051 has 4 selectable banks of 8 addressable 8-bit registers, R0 to R7. This means that there are essentially 32 available general purpose registers, although only 8 (one bank) can be directly accessed at a time. To access the other banks, we need to change the current bank number in the flag status register

  27. A AND B REGISTER:- • The A register is located in the SFR memory location 0xE0. The A register works in a similar fashion to the AX register of x86 processors. The A register is called the accumulator, and by default it receives the result of all arithmetic operations. The B register is used in a similar manner, except that it can receive the extended answers from the multiply and divide operations. When not being used for multiplication and Division, the B register is available as an extra general-purpose register

  28. ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER:- • If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM or EPROM and peripherals and hence the size of the PCB will be large enough to hold all the required peripherals. • But the microcontroller has got all these peripheral facilities on a single chip so development of a similar system with a microcontroller reduces PCB size and cost of the design.

  29. RESULT/DISCUSSION/IMPLIMENTATION:- • In our project we were gone through the research work only. We do not implement the model. In this days as the electricity is became costlier day by day. So such system is really essential for saving energy. We have not such morden concept but we are going to implement the system and we hope that our project is work in real world. We wish that we will implement this system for more than 2-3 equipments. We will try our best to improve our project scope for house-hold as well as commercial application.

  30. Advance search:- •  The aim of our project is conversion of human black body radiation` into the electrical energy by the use of simple principle of energy which is ENERGY CAN’T DESTROY,IT MAY TRANSFER ONE FORM INTO ANOTHER.. Wien’s displacement law and stefan-boltzmann law which gives the radiant intensity

  31. FUTURE SCOPE:- • Infrared thermography Infrared thermography (IRT) is a modern, non-invasive and safe technique of thermal profile visualisation. Every object on the earth generates heat radiation in the infrared part of the light spectrum, the intensity and spectrum distribution of which depend on the temperature of the mass and the radiation properties of its surface layer. Using a thermographic scanning equipment (a thermographic camera) able to detect this type of radiation, even minute changes in temperature can be accurately monitored. The data obtained by scanning is computer-processed, and shown in the form of temperature maps that provide for a detailed analysis of the temperature field.

  32. An infrared camera measures and images the infrared radiation emitted from an object. The fact that radiation is a function of object surface temperature makes it possible for the camera to calculate and display this temperature. However, the radiation measured by the camera does not only depend upon the temperature of the object, but is also a function of its emissivity. Radiation also originates from the surroundings and is reflected by the object. The radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere. To measure temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to compensate for the effects of a number of the different radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by the camera.

  33. However the following object parameters must be supplied for the camera: the emissivity of the object, the reflected temperature, the distance between the object and the camera and the relative humidity. The thermographic method has found numerous applications not only in industry (e.g. building, the military and police, energetic) but also in human and veterinary medicine (Yang & Yang, 1992; Denoix, 1994; Hilsberg et al., 1997; Harper, 2000; Markel & Vainer, 2005). In living organisms, changes in vascular circulation result in an increase or decrease in their tissue temperature, which is then used to evaluate the situation in that area (Harper, 2000).

  34. For example, heat generated by inflammation is transmitted to the overlying skin via increased capillary blood flow, and is dissipated as infrared energy. By using an infrared camera and a specially developed analyzing software program, this infrared energy can be measured (Embabyetal., 2002). One major advantage of this method is the fact that it does not require direct physical contact with the surface monitored, thus allowing remote reading of temperature distribution (Speakman & Ward, 1998).

  35. Limitation:- • There are, however, certain limitations and factors that need to be considered when using IRT. Thermogramsmust be collected out of direct sunlight and wind currents. The surface should be free of dirt, moisture and foreign material. The effect of weather conditions, circadian and ultradian rhythms are also factors that need to be considered and require further investigation as part of validating IRT.

  36. Conclusion:- • Intelligent Energy Saving System is not limited for any particular application, it can be used any where in a process industries with little modifications in software coding according to the requirements. This concept not only ensures that our work will be usable in the future but also provides the flexibility to adapt and extend, as needs change. • In this project work we have studied and implemented a complete working model using a PIC microcontroller. The programming and interfering of PIC microcontroller has been mastered during the implementation. This work includes the study of energy saving system in many applications

  37. Future directions:- • We except that our next generation will develop this energy saving system with wire less network.  • In our project we connected all the sensors to micro controller with the wires. This can be developed with wire less such that we can place different sensors in different places. This sensor will activate the micro controller with the signals instead of using wires. • This system can also be applicable to various loads like pressure, force and etc. by increasing the number of ports of the micro controller.