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Dr. Emma Williamson Professor Marianne Hester. LGBT Domestic Violence: Examining the literature. Contents:. Outline of the Home Office Project Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) Key Research Literature which addresses LGBT perpetrators Recommendations (will appear in HO report).

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dr emma williamson professor marianne hester

Dr. Emma WilliamsonProfessor Marianne Hester

LGBT Domestic Violence:

Examining the literature

slide2

Contents:

  • Outline of the Home Office Project
  • Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA)
  • Key Research
  • Literature which addresses LGBT perpetrators
  • Recommendations (will appear in HO report)
slide3

Exploring the service and support needs of male, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered and black and other minority ethnic victims of domestic and sexual violence

Marianne Hester, Emma Williamson, Geetanjali Gangoli, Mark Coulter

Linda Regan, Rebecca Davenport, Jocelyn Watson

Khatidja Chantler, Lorraine Green

slide4
Exploring the service and support needs of male, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered and black and other minority ethnic victims of domestic violence. Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) of the literature.
  • Exploring the service and support needs of male, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered and black and other minority ethnic victims of sexual violence. Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) of the literature.
  • Exploring the service and support needs of male, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered and black and other minority ethnic victims of domestic violence.
  • Exploring the service and support needs of male, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered and black and other minority ethnic victims of sexual violence.
rea process 1
REA process (1)
  • Criteria to examine:
    • the extent and nature of domestic violence;
    • IMPACT
    • service use;
    • and service need
  • New REA assessment tool:
    • the framework for assessing qualitative evaluations developed by the National Centre for Social Research.
    • The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool for quantitative studies.
slide6
Does the study address a clearly focused question?
  • Did the authors use an appropriate method to answer their question?
  • Was the sample recruited in an acceptable way?
  • Were data collection tools administered adequately?
  • How well has the approach to and formulation of the analysis been conveyed?
  • Contexts of data sources and confounding factors.
  • If, longitudinal study – was the follow-up of subjects complete and long enough?
  • How credible are the findings?
  • Can the results be applied to the local population?
  • Do the results fit with other available evidence?
rea process 2
REA process (2)

Generic DV terms = 2,121 hits.

Sexual orientation including the terms:

Homosexual$ [27396 hits];

Same sex [11365 hits];

Lesbian [3222 hits];

Gay [6421 hits];

Bisexual [3350 hits];

Transgender [442 hits] were carried out.

slide8
Linking the sexual orientation terms resulted in 20,549 hits, which, when combined with the abuse and violence terms, resulted in 141 hits.

These were then examined by hand.

Hand searches were also conducted within the Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association [2000-2002] and Sex Roles.

Further studies identified within the male victim search were included, as was a variety of grey literature.

slide9
Initial sifting culminated in the capture of 116 items.
  • A further 67 were excluded for the following reasons:
    • not about domestic/intimate violence;
    • relate to perpetrator only;
    • prevalence data only without consideration of impact;
    • not about LGBT.
  • The remaining 49 items were considered in terms of the REA tool. There were 8 items relating to male BME victims, which were also considered separately.
  • 13 items remained that were assessed as complying with the criteria.
slide10
Purposive studies

Renzetti (1988, 1992); Merrill & Wolfe (2000); Giorgio (2002); Ristock (2002); Balsam & Szymanski (2005); Donovan & Hester et al (2007); Houston & McKirnan (2007)

Clinical samples

Heintz (2006); Robinson & Rowlands (2006)

Service provider perspectives

Renzetti (1996); Blasko (2007); Helfrich & Simpson (2006)

research which includes perpetrators
Research which includes perpetrators

Coleman. V.E. (2003) Treating the lesbian batterer: theoretical and clinical considerations – a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective, in Journal of aggression, maltreatment & trauma, 7 (1/2) 159-205.

Theoretical paper which looks at the “intrapsychic factors” in the treatment of lesbian batterers. Looks at personality development in relation to:

  • Attachment theory
  • State and Affect regulation
  • Shame
  • Pathological vindictiveness
slide12

Farley, N. (1996) "A Survey of Factors Contributing to Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence", Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 35-42.

Qualitative study of gay male and lesbian perpetrators of DV.

288 Clients referred to perp programme. Males = 119, Females = 169.

Research to understand whether self abusing behaviour is predominant among these perpetrators. ALL psychologically abused as children. Very high rates of external abuse and self abusing in both lesbian and gay male group.

slide13

Fountain.K., and Skolnik.A.A. (2006) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender domestic violence in the United States in 2006. National Coalition of anti-violence programs.

Useful outline of LGBT abuse. Local summaries highlight only 1 area where LGBT intervention programmes exist. L.A. Gay and Lesbian Centre has court approved batterer intervention programme.

All other areas report lack of resources made more difficult due to legal discrimination re: same-sex marriage.

slide14
Landolt, M. A. & Dutton (1997) "Power and Personality: An Analysis of Gay Male Intimate Abuse", Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, vol. 37, pp. 335-358.

Looks at psychological profiling. Concludes abuse can occur in relatively egalitarian relationships.

slide15

Margolies, L., Leeder, E. (1995) Violence at the door: Treatment of lesbian batterers. Violence Against Women, 1, 139-157.

30 lesbian batterers, psychological profiles.

Suggests lesbian batterers are women who have broken the nor of compliant victim.

Therefore challenging the boundaries of perpetrator and victim.

slide16

Marrujo, B., Kreger, M. (1996) Definitions of roles in abusive lesbian relationships. In Renzetti & Miley (eds) Violence in gay and lesbian domestic relationships.

62 lesbian clients who were victims/perpetrators of domestic violence.

Suggests third role, beyond perpetrator/victim, of “participant”.

slide17
Pattavina.A. (2007) A comparison of the police response to heterosexual versus same-sex intimate partner violence, Violence Against Women, 13 (4), 374-394.

Examines whether police respond the same to heterosexual and same sex domestic violence .

“For gay perpetrators of abuse, seeking help from formal services is actively discouraged by support groups who anticipate potentially volatile situations among groups of men already susceptible to violent behaviours” [381].

slide18

Telesco.G.A. (2003) Sex role identity and jealousy as correlates of abusive behavior in lesbian relationships, Journal of Human Behaviour and the Social Environment, 8 (2/3) 153-69.

105 lesbians. Strong evidence of a relationship between jealousy and abusive behaviour.

slide19

Walder-Haugrud, L.K., Gratch, L.V., Magruder, B. (1997) Victimization and perpetration rates of violence in gay and lesbian relationships: Gender issues explored, Violence and Victims, 12 (2) 173-184.

283 gay men and lesbian women who experienced dv as victim and/or perpetrator.

Lesbians reported perpetration rate of 38%

Gay men reported perpetration rate of 21.8%.

key points questions
Key points/questions
  • Are there differences in the DV perpetrated by heterosexual men, heterosexual women, gay men, and lesbian women?
  • What are the different factors in the research?
    • Previous abusive experiences as adults and children.
    • Boundaries between perpetrators and victims.
    • Different psychological profiles and responses.
  • Do we currently provide any services for lesbian/gay perpetrators?
  • What would such a service look like and how would it differ from current perpetrator programmes for heterosexual men?
slide21
Violence Against Women Research Group

Gender Based Violence

www.bristol.ac.uk/vawrg

e.williamson@bristol.ac.uk