Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerlan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerlan PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerlan

play fullscreen
1 / 77
Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerlan
149 Views
Download Presentation
judith
Download Presentation

Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerlan

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Biosafety: Global Debate on Risks and Socio-Economic Benefits of GE crops Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Switzerland September 25, 2013 Full plenary talk

  2. The four talking points: • Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons: Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process level • Yield in Agriculture, a mixed Bag with a bright futureClimate Mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy • The role of the protest corporates, more science, less propaganda is needed • The consequences: Dialogue, Collaboration and Food Prices closer to Production costs: less protectionism and eco-imperialism

  3. Regulation too expensive, one of the main reasons: Wrong focus on transgenic Crops: Genomic Misconception: Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis are the same on the molecular process levelTransgenesis NOT inherently morerisky than conventional breeding

  4. In the European Union (and the Cartagena Protocol decision making process is too complex, obscure and politically inefficient The Canadian product oriented regulation would solve many problems,big obstacle: Unscientific focus on transgenesis of most international biosafety laws, including Cartagena Protocol and European Union. Ammann, K. (20120706), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32, http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20120706-names-def.pdf

  5. Ammann Klaus (20130415), Genomic Misconception. A fresh look at the biosafety regulation of transgenic and conventional crops: a plea for a process of agnostic regulation, open source, final version, in: New Biotechnology, 30, 50 and typeset 17, Ammann K., Neuchatel, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1871678413000605 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20130415-names-links.pdf AND typeset corrected: http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Ammann-Genomic-Misconception-corrected-final-20130514.pdfAND German Abstract http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Ammann-German-Abstract-Highlights-20130415.pdf

  6. Interestingly, naturally occurring molecular evolution, i.e. the spontaneous generation of genetic variants has been seen to follow exactly the same three strategies as those used in genetic engineering14. These three strategies are (after W. Arber, Nobel Laureate 1978) (a) small local changes in the nucleotide sequences, (b) internal reshuffling of genomic DNA segments, and (c) acquisition of usually rather small segments of DNA from another type of organism by horizontal gene transfer. Arber, W. (1990), 3 Impact of Human Civilization on Biological Evolution in SCOPE 44 - Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment, ed. H. A. B. Mooney, G.,, Vol., pp. COGEN, http://www.scopenvironment.org/downloadpubs/scope44/chapter12.htmlAND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Arber-Impact-Human-Civilization-1990.pdf Arber, W. (2010) Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations. New Biotechnology, 27, 5, pp 517-521 http://www.ask-force.org/web/Vatican-PAS-Studyweek-Elsevier-publ-20101130/Arber-Werner-PAS-Genetic-Engineering-Compared-20101130-publ.pdf

  7. «However, there is a principal difference between the procedures of genetic engineering and those serving in nature for biological evolution. While the genetic engineer pre-reflects his alteration and verifies its results, nature places its genetic variations more randomly and largely independent of an identified goal. After ca. 15 years of testing the GM crops are brought to the field by millions in a few years» Arber, W. (2002) Roots, strategies and prospects of functional genomics. Current Science, 83, 7, pp 826-828 http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Mutations/Arber-Comparison-2002.pdf “With respect to biological evolution, recombinant DNA techniques hardly represent entirely new aspects. Leakiness of genetic isolation, spontaneous mutagenesis, and mechanisms to bypass selective forces are known to exist under natural conditions” Arber, W. (1990), 3 Impact of Human Civilization on Biological Evolution in SCOPE 44 - Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms into the Environment, ed. H. A. B. Mooney, G.,, Vol., pp. COGEN, http://www.scopenvironment.org/downloadpubs/scope44/chapter12.html AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Arber-Impact-Human-Civilization-1990.pdf

  8. Arber, W. (2010) Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations. New Biotechnology, 27, 5, pp 517-521 http://www.ask-force.org/web/Vatican-PAS-Studyweek-Elsevier-publ-20101130/Arber-Werner-PAS-Genetic-Engineering-Compared-20101130-publ.pdf

  9. The spirit of the participants was inspired by the same approach to technology that Benedict XVI expressed in his new Encyclica, in particular that ‘Technology is the objective side of human action, Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem exercens, 5: loc. cit., 586-589. whose origin and raison d’être is found in the subjective element: the worker himself. For this reason, technology is never merely technology. It reveals man and his aspirations towards development, it expresses the inner tension that impels him gradually to overcome material limitations. Technology, in this sense, is a response to God’s command to till and to keep the land (cf. Gen 2:15) that he has entrusted to humanity, and it must serve to reinforce the covenant between human beings and the environment, a covenant that should mirror God’s creative love’. Caritas in veritate, § 69.

  10. Two recent international conferences on the position of Islam towards modern agriculture yielded positive views: • The World Halal Forum 2010 sought to begin discussions on the Islamic stance of Genetically Modified Food. • At the end of the workshop panelists and participants unanimously agreed to the a positive statement • 2. Sharia Compliance conference 2010 came to the same positive conclusions • World Halal Forum (2010) • GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) CROPS & HALAL WORKSHOP REPORT (eds W.H. Forum), pp. 35. World Halal Forum, Kuala Lumpur Convention Center www.worldhalalforum.org AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Islam/GM-Crops-World-Halal-Forum-Kuala-Lumpur-2010.pdf • Sharia Compliance (2010) • International Workshop for Islamic Scholars: Agribiotechnology: Shariah Compliance, pp. 7. Members of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)], Traders Hotel, Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia • http://www.ask-force.org/web/Islam/Shariah-Compliance-Agribiotech-Resolution_Final-20101202.pdf

  11. Scatter plot representation of transcriptome comparisons, Baudo et al. 2006 Baudo: comparison in genomic disturbance: GM crops are less disturbed (black dots) than classic breeds transgenic vs. control endosperm 14 dpa 28 dpa 8 dpg Baudo, M.M., Lyons, R., Powers, S., Pastori, G.M., Edwards, K.J., Holdsworth, M.J., & Shewry, P.R. (2006) Transgenesis Has Less Impact on the Transcriptome of Wheat Grain Than Conventional Breeding. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4, 4, pp 369-380 http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Baudo-Impact-2006.pdf Shewry, P.R. & Jones, H.D. (2005) Transgenic Wheat: Where Do We Stand after the First 12 Years? Annals of Applied Biology, 147, 1, pp 1-14 http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Shewry-Performance-2006.pdf 2 conventional lines Endosperm 14 dpa 28 dpa leaf at 8 dpg transgenic vs. conventional Endosperm 14 dpa 28 dpa leaf at 8 dpg

  12. Radiation breeding as field experiments Gamma Field for radiation breeding 100m radius 89 TBq Co-60 source at the center Shielding dike 8m high Better spaghettis, whisky 1800 new plants Institute of Radiation Breeding Ibaraki-ken, JAPAN http://www.irb.affrc.go.jp/

  13. Radiation site for mutation breeding, Co-60 radioactivity source of 89 TBq in the center, Radius of 100m. Gamma Field for Radiation Breeding Was muss man sichdaruntervorstellen? 89 TBq represents the 140-fold of all Radioactivity of material stored in the German permanent storage site of Morsleben insgesamt eingelagerten Radioaktivität. In this radiation field a human being would receive 3 deadly Sievers units of radiation after the exposure times given below 3,5 min 60 min

  14. Reuters, May 10, 2010 UN's International Atomic Energy Agency since 1963, 2,252 new plant varieties, including Italian durum wheat, have been created using radioactive substances such as cobalt and X-rays. 70% of the crops under cultivation worldwide are radiation mutation varieties Charles Margulis of Greenpeace USA: "But now they tell us that scientists have been artificially hybridizing plants since the 1960s.That's, like, really uncool."

  15. Activists, supported by Jane Rissler, called for a ban, since those irradiated varieties have never been tested for food safety, which would have wiped out 70% of the food products on shelfs. Jane Rissler(Union of Concerned Scientists) “Compared to these plants, genetically modified food is about as dangerous as a one-legged man in an ass-kicking contest.” But excellent repair mechanisms working like zippers are reducing radiation damage considerably And worldwide there has been no correlation established between radiation mutation and negative food safety facts. (Reuters 2001 continued)

  16. FRANKENSTEIN Durum Wheat, Triticum durum: all major breeds have gone though massive and inprecise radiation breeding, but with Important success unnecessary fearmongering

  17. European Biosafety and the Cartagena Protocol The biosafety protocol is based on the wrong Premises: See Genomic Misconception in this slides: Natural Mutation and transgenesis are the same on the molecular level. www.strangevehicles.com

  18. System map of the principal issues, challenges and feedback loops in the risk management component of the legislation EPEC-SANCO (2011) Evaluation of the EU legislative framework in the field of cultivation of GMOs under Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003, and the placing on the market of GMOs as or in products under Directive 2001/18/EC Final Report, pp. 137. European Commission DG Sanco http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biotechnology/evaluation/docs/gmo_cultivation_report_en.pdf

  19. Undue delays in Europe for the approval of GM crops, status November 5, 2012 http://www.europabio.org/sites/default/files/44_years_of_delays_in_the_eu_approval_of_gm_products_europabio.pdf

  20. BRUSSELS | Wed Jul 17, 2013 4:45pm EDT BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Monsanto Co said on Wednesday it will withdraw all pending approval requests to grow new types of genetically modified crops in the European Union, due to the lack of commercial prospects for cultivation there. "Madero said the decision would allow the company to focus on growing its conventional seeds business in Europe, as well as securing EU approvals to import its genetically modified crop varieties widely grown in the United States and South America.

  21. Innovation in agbiotech. (a) Location and sector of organizations conducting R&D for the 558 transgenic product quality innovations identified. Private sector consists of corporate and privately held firms. Public sector consists of government research laboratories, universities and nonprofit research institutes. (b) Annual entry, exit and the numbers of innovations active in the R&D pipeline were calculated from observations of the 558 innovations tracked in the primary survey. The number of active innovations stopped growing in 1998, after which those new innovations that entered were more likely to be published and less likely to move toward commercialization. Fig.1 from (Graff et al., 2009b). Graff, G.D., Zilberman, D., & Bennett, A.B. (2009) The contraction of Ag-biotech product quality innovation. Nature Biotechnology, 27, 8, pp 702-704 http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Regulation/Graff-Contraction-Agbiotech-Innovation-2009.pdf

  22. One of the main reasons for the regulatory stall and the difficult innovation climate in modern Agrivculture in Europe: the Genomic Misconception Natural Mutation (ie. Conventional breeding) and Transgenesis (i.e. GM crops) are the same on the molecular process level Giddings, V., I. Potrykus, Ammann K. and N. Fedoroff (2012), Confronting the Gordian knot, Opinion, Nature Biotechnology, 30, 3, pp. 208-209, http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n3/abs/nbt.2145.html AMD http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Giddings-Confronting-Gordian-Knot-2012.pdf AND Editorial A. Marshall http://www.ask-force.org/web/Genomics/Marshall-Agnostic-About-Agriculture-2012.pdf Ammann, K. (20120706), Genomic Misconception: A fresh look at the biosafety of transgenic and conventional crops, a plea for a process agnostic regulation New Biotechnology, in press, pp. 32, http://www.ask-force.org/web/NewBiotech/Genomic-Misconception-20120706-names-def.pdf

  23. The time has come for the scientific community to advance a new generation of international organizations that expressly promote scientific cooperation — agencies that can help foster technological cooperation for Africa’s economic transformation. Juma, C. (2011) The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa Preprint 3 Chapters Oxford University Press (14. Januar 2011) IS: ISBN-10: 0199783195 ISBN-13: 978-0199783199, pp 296 http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Governing-Innovation-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Growing-Economy-Ch-1-2011.pdf and http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Introduction-2011.pdf AND https://www.amazon.de/New-Harvest-Agricultural-Innovation-Africa/dp/0199783195/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1320909861&sr=8-1 Juma, C. (2011) Preventing hunger: Biotechnology is key. Nature, 479, 7374, pp 471-472 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/479471a AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Preventing-Hunger-Nature-2011.pdf Juma, C. (2011) Science Meets Farming in Africa. Science, 334, 6061, pp 1323 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6061/1323.short AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Developing/Juma-Science-Meets-Africa-20111209.pdf

  24. 2. Yield in Agriculture, a mixed bag with a bright future. climate mitigation, towards a better Ag Economy

  25. Europe is trailing in yield since 1990

  26. actual breeding plus cultural practice gain Source: March 2006. Crop Science. Ref# 46:528-543 In the US maize yields have accelerated in the last ten years due to modern breeding methods

  27. http://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2013-may/research-raises-agricultural-productivity-in-sub-saharan-africa.aspx#.Uj1t5KZBvalhttp://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2013-may/research-raises-agricultural-productivity-in-sub-saharan-africa.aspx#.Uj1t5KZBval

  28. Royal-Society (2009), Reaping the benefits: science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture, Royal Socienty, No. 11/09, pp. 89, London, AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Benefits/RS-Reaping-the-Benefits-200910.pdf Ammann, K. (20120620), Chapter 27: Advancing the cause in emerging economies in Successful Agricultural Innovation in Emerging Economies, ed. Bennett David and Jennings Richard, Vol., pp. 27 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, http://www.ask-force.org/web/CUP-Success-GM-crops/Ammann-Advancing-Cause-Emerging-20120802.pdf

  29. Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East Time dependence of FAO Food Price Index from January 2004 to May 2011. Red dashed vertical lines correspond to beginning dates of \food riots" and protests associated with the major recent unrest in North Africa and the Middle East. The overall death toll is reported in parentheses [26{55]. Blue vertical line indicates the date, December 13, 2010, on which we submitted a report to the U.S. government, warning of the link between food prices, social unrest and political instability [56]. Inset shows FAO Food Price Index from 1990 to 2011. LagiMarco, K. Z. B., Yaneer Bar-Yam, (2011), The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph), NECSI 2011-07-01, pp. 15, arXiv:1108.2455v1 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Yield/Lagi-Food-Crises-Political-Instability-2011.pdf Slavo Mac (20110824) Complexity Theorists Predict Food Crisis, Riots and Civil Unrest By April 2013. In SHTFplan.com http://www.shtfplan.com/forecasting/complexity-theorists-predict-food-crisis-riots-and-civil-unrest-by-april-2013_08242011

  30. FAO Price Index at current prices (black) and constant prices (blue) Time dependence of FAO Price Index at current prices (upper black curve) and constant prices (corrected for ination, lower blue curve) from January 2004 to May 2011. Red dashed vertical lines correspond to beginning dates of food riots and events associated with the major recent unrest in North Africa and the Middle East. Black and blue horizontal lines represent the price threshold above which riots are ignited in current and constant prices respectively. Index backgrounds are tted with a third-order polynomial; intersection with the threshold (July 2012 at current prices, August 2013 at prices corrected for world ination, [65]) represents the point of instability. LagiMarco, K. Z. B., Yaneer Bar-Yam, (2011), The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph), NECSI 2011-07-01, pp. 15, arXiv:1108.2455v1 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Yield/Lagi-Food-Crises-Political-Instability-2011.pdf Slavo Mac (20110824) Complexity Theorists Predict Food Crisis, Riots and Civil Unrest By April 2013. In SHTFplan.com http://www.shtfplan.com/forecasting/complexity-theorists-predict-food-crisis-riots-and-civil-unrest-by-april-2013_08242011

  31. Galvao, A. and Celeres (20100809), Celeres, Biotechnology Report 2010, Celeres, No. pp. 7, Uberlandia, MattoGrosso, http://www.ask-force.org/web/Brazil/Celeres-Brazil-Biotechnology-Report-2010.pdfAND http://www.celeres.com.br/1/english/index.html

  32. Mercosur consolidates as leading soybean region with 52% of world’s production Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia harvest 136 million tons annually, compared to the 83 from the United States and the world’s 260 million tons (2011) http://en.mercopress.com/2011/09/17/mercosur-consolidates-as-leading-soybean-region-with-52-of-world-s-production

  33. It is wrong to blame all mishap with GM crops to Genetic Engineering See a typical debate between scientists on this topic: Broer, I., R. J. Busch, C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald, A. von Tiedemann, C. Moehring, P. Schmitz-Moeller and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2009), GrueneGentechnik, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, No. ISBN 978-3-527-32857-4, pp. 56, http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Regulation/DFG-Broschuer-Gruene-Gentechnik-2009.pdf Taube, F., M. Krawinkel, A. Susenbeth and W. Theobald (2011), The booklet "Genetically modified crops" published from the German Research Foundation, does not meet the given claim Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 1, http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/1 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Taube-DFG-Genuegt-Nicht-2011.pdf Broer, I., C. Jung, F. Ordon, M. Qaim, B. Reinhold-Hurek, U. Sonnewald and A. von Tiedemann (2011), Response to the criticism by Taube et al. in ESE 23:1, 2011, on the booklet "Green Genetic Engineering" published by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Environmental Sciences Europe, 23, 1, pp. 16, http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/16 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Regulation/Broer-Stellungsname-DFG-2011.pdf Draft Summary of the Glyphosate Debate Ammann, K. (20130915), Glyphosate Information, a Selection, draft September 15, 2013, in: ASK-FORCE AF-15, Klaus Ammann, Neuchatel, http://www.ask-force.org/web/AF-15-Glyphosate/Ammann-AF-15-Glyphosate-Information-20130915.pdf

  34. Development of resistant weeds with herbicide use

  35. Fig. 2. Relationship between nsecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology.Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function. See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure.Data was obtained from 2001 trials. Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp 900-902 http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-2003.pdf AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-supplements-2003.pdf

  36. Figure 2. Relationship between insecticide use and crop losses with and without Bt technology. Curves are predictions based on econometric estimation of a logistic damage-control function. See table S1 for details and results of the estimation procedure. Data was obtained from 2001 trials Qaim, M. & Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science, 299, 5608, pp 900-902 <Go to ISI>://WOS:000180830900055 AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-2003.pdf AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/BioEconomy/Qaim-Zilberman-Yield-Effects-supplements-2003.pdf

  37. Herring, R.J. & Rao Chandrasekhara N. (2012) On the ‘Failure of Bt Cotton’, Analysing a Decade of Experience. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVII, 18, pp 45-53 http://epw.in/epw/uploads/articles/17418.pdf AND http://www.ask-force.org/web/Cotton/Herring-Rao-Failure-Bt-Cotton-Analysis-2012.pdf

  38. Average cotton yields 1980-2007 • Gruère Guillaume P., Mehta-Bhatt Purvi, & Debdatta Sengupta (2008) • Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India Reviewing the Evidence, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808, Environment and Production Technology Division pp 64 IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808 Washington (Report) • http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-IFPRIDP200810.pdf AND http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/IFPRIDP00808.pdf

  39. Gruere Guillaume P., Mehta-Bhatt Purvi and Debdatta Sengupta (2008), Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India Reviewing the Evidence, IFPRI Discussion Paper 00808, Environment and Production Technology Division, No. pp. 64, Washington, http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-IFPRIDP200810.pdfAND http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/IFPRIDP00808.pdf AND http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-Farmer-Suicides-Slides-2008.pdf AND http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Cotton/Gruere-Farmer-Suicides-Slides-2008.ppt

  40. The role of the Protest CorporatesAppeal to basic fear instincts of population,making out of this good business: Income ofGreenpeace 2010 confirmed 62mio Euro • we demand more science, less propaganda

  41. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/201332813553729250.htmlhttp://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/201332813553729250.html

  42. Bullshit award for Vandana Shiva

  43. Greenpeace • Billboard Campaign in Brussels • according to Filip Cnudde • 32 500 euros/week (this price doesnt include the making of the poster, only the poster campaign) • + 995 euros (taxes) • 300 billboards (of which 195 billboards are around subway entrances).

  44. http://gmopundit.blogspot.ch/2013/03/the-greenwar-chronicles-part-43.htmlhttp://gmopundit.blogspot.ch/2013/03/the-greenwar-chronicles-part-43.html Greenpeace destroys scientific field trial in Australia 2012 from CSRIO

  45. Help Fundamentalists, Donate Brain

  46. the myth of naturalness Sunflowers, Helianthus annuus cultivar, one of the most artificial horticultural plants as a symbol for the political party of the greens from Germany: Bündnis 90, DIE GRÜNEN. http://gruene-senden.de/schlagzeilen/archiv.html