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metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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metabolism. all of the processes occurring in a person’s body. metabolic rate. the rate at which a person’s body uses energy. basal metabolic rate. the rate at which a person’s body uses energy while inactive. Aerobic Cellular Respiration. carbon dioxide. oxygen. energy. sugar.

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'metabolism' - jude


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slide2

metabolism

all of the processes occurring in a person’s body

slide3

metabolic rate

the rate at which a person’s body uses energy

slide4

basal metabolic rate

the rate at which a person’s body uses energy while inactive

slide5

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

carbon

dioxide

oxygen

energy

sugar

glucose

slide6

Digestive System

  • breaks down food
slide7

Respiratory System

  • supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
slide8

Circulatory System

  • transports food and oxygento body cells
  • transports carbon dioxide away from body cells
slide9

Functions of the Respiratory System

  • breathing
  • exchanging gas between the atmosphere and the blood
slide10

Functions of the Respiratory System

  • preventing foreign substances from entering during breathing
slide11

mucus

a thick sticky substance secreted by mucous membranes

cilia

move the mucus towardthe throat

slide12

Functions of the Respiratory System

  • preventing foreign substances from entering during breathing
  • speaking
slide14

Nose

  • cleanses the air
    • mucus and cilia
  • warms and moistens the air
slide15

pharynx

larynx

esophagus

slide16

epiglottis

a thin flap of tissue that folds over and blocks the opening to the larynx during swallowing

slide17

vocal cords

folds of mucous membrane within the larynx

slide18

glottis

the space between the vocal folds

slide19

epiglottis

over

the glottis

slide20

larynx

= voice box

slide21

pharynx

larynx

esophagus

trachea

bronchi

slide22

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchial tubes

slide23

pneumonia

infection of the lungs

slide24

pharynx

larynx

esophagus

trachea

bronchi

bronchioles

slide25

asthma

a condition in which the bronchioles become constricted

slide26

mouth

nostrils

nostrils

mouth

larynx

bronchi

alveoli

slide27

pharynx

mouth

pharynx

larynx

nostrils

larynx

bronchi

alveoli

slide28

trachea

pharynx

mouth

trachea

nostrils

bronchi

larynx

bronchi

trachea

alveoli

bronchioles

slide29

pharynx

trachea

mouth

nostrils

alveoli

larynx

bronchioles

bronchi

trachea

bronchioles

alveoli

bronchioles

slide30

Lungs

  • the main organs of the respiratory system
  • exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood
slide31

Alveoli

  • microscopic sacs in the lungs where the exchange of gases takes place
slide33

Alveoli

  • microscopic sacs in the lungs where the exchange of gases takes place
  • increase the surfacearea of the lungs
  • only one cell thick
slide34

diffusion

the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

slide35

tuberculosis

infection in the alveoli caused by bacteria

slide36

emphysema

causes the walls of the alveoli to become less elastic and possibly rupture

slide37

inhale

to draw air into the lungs

exhale

to force air out of the lungs

slide38

breathing

the process of inhaling and exhaling

slide39

thorax

the chest cavity

slide40

diaphragm

the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen

slide41

inhaling

exhaling

diaphragm

slide42

Hiccupping

  • occurs when the diaphragm contracts when theglottis is closed
slide43

collapsed lung

failure of the alveoli of the lungs to inflate properly

slide44

extra air that can be exhaled1000 mL

normal breathing 500 mL

extra air that can be inhaled3000 mL

extra air that cannot be exhaled1000 mL

3000 mL

500 mL

1000 mL

1000 mL

total capacity of lungs 5500 mL

slide45

digestion

the process of breaking down food into smaller substances

slide46

assimilation

the process by which living cells convert nutrients into cellular structures

slide47

mechanical digestion

the process of grinding food and mixing it with digestive juices

slide48

chemical digestion

using chemicals to break down food into soluble substances the body can use

slide49

enzyme

a protein that catalyzes cellular reactions

slide50

Functions of theDigestive System

  • mechanical and chemical digestion
  • absorption of food
slide51

Functions of theDigestive System

  • adjusting the concentrations of various foods in the bloodstream
slide52

Functions of theDigestive System

  • destruction of harmful substances that enter the body through the mouth and nose
slide53

Alimentary Canal

  • “food tube”
  • mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines
slide54

peristalsis

the muscular contractions that move food through the alimentary canal

slide55

Accessory Organs

  • liver, pancreas, gallbladder
  • secrete substances necessary for digestion
slide56

Types of Teeth

  • incisors
  • canines
  • premolars
  • molars
    • wisdom teeth

(8)

(4)

(8)

(12)

slide57

Salivary Glands

  • produce saliva
slide58

pharynx

esophagus

slide59

chyme

a semi-liquid mixture of digestive juices and partially digested food

slide60

heartburn

a burning sensation in the esophagus caused by acidic liquid moving upward from the stomach

slide61

Small Intestine

  • the major site of chemical digestion
  • the major site of absorption
slide62

villi

microscopic, fingerlike structures that line the small intestine

slide63

Large Intestine

  • absorption of water and minerals
  • removal of waste products
slide64

liver

gallbladder

slide65

duct

a tube through which a substance passes

slide66

liver

— produces bile

gallbladder

— stores bile

slide67

bile

a substance that helps digest fats

slide68

portal vein

the blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver

slide69

Functions of the Liver

  • produces bile
  • regulates the sugar contentof the blood
  • filters out poisons and other harmful substances
slide70

cirrhosis of the liver

a liver disease caused by drinking too much alcohol, breathing in certain poisonous gases, or having certain bacterial or viral infections

slide71

Functions of the Liver

  • filters out old red blood cells
  • secretes substances into the blood plasma
slide72

liver

pancreas

gallbladder

slide73

Pancreas

  • produces pancreatic juices
  • produces insulin
slide74

Food

  • carbohydrates
  • proteins
  • lipids
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • water
slide75

Carbohydrates

  • sugars and starches
slide76

Proteins

  • made up of amino acids
  • function as enzymes and building blocks
slide77

Lipids

  • fats and oils
slide78

vitamin

a substance made by living things that is essential for the body to function properly

slide79

mineral

a naturally occurring, inorganic substance not usually made by living organisms but used by the body to build certain materials

slide80

Vitamin C

  • found in citrus fruits
  • scurvy
slide81

Vitamin A

  • found in yellow and orange vegetables
  • night blindness
slide82

Vitamin D

  • found in fortified milk
  • aids in the absorption of calcium
slide83

Chemical Digestion

Carbohydrates

  • begins in the mouth
  • finished in the small intestine
slide84

Chemical Digestion

Proteins

  • begins in the stomach
slide85

Chemical Digestion

Fats

  • begins with bile in the small intestine
slide86

emulsify

to separate into droplets, allowing lipids to mix with water

slide87

assimilation

the process by which living cells convert nutrients into cellular structures

slide88

calorie

a unit used to indicate the amount of energy released from food during cellular respiration

slide89

Energy Requirements

  • 2,200-2,500 calories a day
  • daily activities
  • body size and basal metabolic rate
  • boy or girl
slide90

Weight

  • consume more calories than you use
  • consume fewer calories than you use

➜gain weight

➜ lose weight

slide91

starvation

becoming weak or dying from lack of food energy

slide92

What Did You Learn?

List the following structures in order that an inhaled breathof air would pass through:

pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, pharynx, trachea

slide93

What Did You Learn?

How is a baby born to a smoker likely to differ from one born to a nonsmoker?

slide94

What Did You Learn?

What is secondhand smoke, and why is it important?

slide95

What Did You Learn?

Explain the difference between digestion and assimilation.

slide96

What Did You Learn?

In general, what is the end product of chemical digestion?

slide97

What Did You Learn?

Why can the liver and pancreas be considered digestive organs even though food never passes through them?