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LIF101 Anatomy. Bone structures of the Skull: (Face and Cranium). The Human Skull. 22 flat bones Primary functions encase/protect brain provide framework for head Two parts: Cranium (egg) Facial region (mask). Cranium of Infant. Still mostly cartilage; bones incompletely ossified

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Lif101 anatomy
LIF101Anatomy

Bone structures of the Skull: (Face and Cranium)


The human skull
The Human Skull

  • 22 flat bones

  • Primary functions

    • encase/protect brain

    • provide frameworkfor head

  • Two parts:

    • Cranium (egg)

    • Facial region (mask)


Cranium of infant
Cranium of Infant

  • Still mostly cartilage; bones incompletely ossified

  • Fontanels (“little fountains”): fibrous membranes (a.k.a. soft spots)

  • Allows head compression for birth

  • Also allows for rapid brain growth in infants

  • Bones completely ossified by approximate age of 2


Cranial sutures
Cranial Sutures

  • Immovable joints

  • Joints are SUTURES

  • Serrated appearance

  • Allow tight fit among cranial bones

  • Occasionally visible on bald individuals



The cranium
The Cranium

  • Encases brain

  • Includes 8 flat bones/know 6:

    • frontal (1)

    • occipital (1)

    • parietal (2)

    • temporal (2)


Frontal bone
Frontal Bone

  • forms forehead

  • frontal eminence = wide, shallow bump on frontal bone, right on the forehead.

  • Orbits = sockets where eyeballs rest

  • glabella

  • superciliary crests: more prominent on males

  • temporal lines (anterior ends)




Lif101 anatomy

Glabella females.

Glabella = Slightly sunken area between superciliary crests.


Features of occipital bone
Features of Occipital Bone females.

  • Occipital protuberance: small bump

  • on posterior base of cranium

  • Nuchal lines: horizontal ridges on

    either side of O. Protuberance

  • Foramen magnum: large hole at

  • base of skull through which

  • spinal cord exits the cranium



Nuchal lines
Nuchal Lines females.


Parietal bone
Parietal Bone females.

  • from L. paries (wall)

  • Bilateral

  • forms “roof” of skull

  • temporal line

  • parietal eminence (widest part of the skull)


Temporal line
Temporal Line females.


Temporal bone
Temporal Bone females.

  • Forms “temple”

  • bilateral

  • auditory meatus

  • mastoid process

  • zygomatic process (and zygomatic arch)



Mastoid process a large bump posterior behind and inferior below the auditory meatus
Mastoid Process: a large bump posterior (behind) and inferior (below) the auditory meatus.

  • Can be felt behind and below the ear.


Zygomatic bone zygoma
Zygomatic Bone (zygoma) inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • a.k.a. cheek bones

  • bilateral

  • part of zygomatic arch

  • widest point on the face


Zygomatic arch
Zygomatic Arch inferior (below) the auditory meatus

Formed by Zygomatic bone + Zygomatic process of temporal bone


Zygomatic process
Zygomatic process inferior (below) the auditory meatus

of temporal bone

Is widest point on the face


Nasal bones
Nasal Bones inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • only in bridge of nose

  • often considered one bone, but is actually two, so…

  • bilateral

  • remainder of nose is cartilage and fat tissue


Maxilla e
Maxilla(e) inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • Often considered one bone, but is actually two, so…

  • Bilateral (on both sides of the midline. The hands are bilateral.)

  • canine fossa (for cheek muscles

  • hard palate (roof of mouth)

  • dental arch with alveoli for upper teeth


Dental arch
Dental Arch inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • The superior portion of the 2 Maxillae that form the roof of the mouth


The alveoli
The Alveoli inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • Pockets in the Maxilla in which the roots of the upper teeth rest


Canine fossa a depression on the maxilla in which cheek muscles rest
Canine Fossa: a depression on the inferior (below) the auditory meatusMAXILLA in which cheek muscles rest

  • Fossa is the Latin word for ditch or trench.

  • Fossa (anatomy) is an anatomical term that referring to a depression or hollow, in general, in a bone

    Canine Fossa


Mandible
Mandible inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • a.k.a. jaw bone

  • Temporal-mandibular joint (T.M.J.)

  • Attaches to the temporal bone.

  • Only movable joint in the skill

  • angle of mandible

  • mental protuberance

  • alveoli for lower teeth


Temporal mandibular joint
Temporal-mandibular joint inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • TMJ syndrome:

  • Pain or dysfunction of the temporal-mandibular joint is commonly referred to as "TMJ",

  • Problems involving the TMJs and the muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other tissues associated with them.


Lif101 anatomy


Mandible1
Mandible inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • a.k.a. jaw bone

  • Temporal-mandibular joint (T.M.J.)

  • Attaches to the temporal bone.

  • Only movable joint in the skill

  • angle of mandible

  • mental protuberance

  • alveoli for lower teeth


Sphenoid lacrimal vomer palatine and ethmoid bones not seen at surface
Sphenoid, Lacrimal, Vomer, Palatine, and Ethmoid Bones inferior (below) the auditory meatus(not seen at surface)


Reading assignments
Reading Assignments inferior (below) the auditory meatus

  • Peck, pages 10 – 21

  • Quiz 1 NEXT WEEK: Will cover first two lectures: 1) basic anatomical and skeletal terms, and 2) skull