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Chapter 20. Civil War ___________________.

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chapter 20

Chapter 20

Civil War

___________________

slide2

I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon us, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.

- ABRAHAM LINCOLN, MAY 7, 1861

lincoln as president
Lincoln as President
  • ______________________ (Buchanan’s Worries / lack of reaction)
  • March 1861 – ________________________ (secretly)
  • Lincoln’s main agenda throughout the Civil War: ________________________

____________________________________

Lincoln’s thinking:

(1) “_________________________________” (Sectional divorce-_____________________________________flows North) Role in _________________ (1865-_______)

(2) There will be NO conflict, unless the ___________ provoked it! (____________)

If split…

(a) How much ________________ would the South assume

(b) How much “__________________” federal land would be allotted to the South

(c) How would the ______________________be resolved (traffic on the Underground Railroad keeps increasing)

International reaction to Civil War

(3) Europe would LOVE to see America ______ (opportunity to blatantly disrespect the ___________________ *(Divide and conquer attitude)

seward s
Seward’s (_____________) ‘___________

1848 connection: ____________________

Goal of ‘61 scheme: Wanted war with __________________________

Why?

- Hoping the South would rally around the flag to have a “united” states again.

Lincoln’s response: “____________________” – squashed Seward’s plan

slide5
_____________(__________ , S.C.)
  • __________________
  • Northern fort taken over by Southern Confederates

Lincoln’s reaction

(1) Send “___________” rather than “______________” / supplies, but the Confederacy claimed this was an attack

(2) a “_________________” - 75,000 “________________” were called for duty

(3) _________________________(this will stay intact for 5 years (until war’s end) – ______________________

- Shots fired first from the Confederacy

*2 and 3 are noted as _______________________until the Supreme Court claims they are beneficial to the preservation of the Union

Southern reaction:

  • ______________________________(Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina)
  • Confederate capital switched from ______________to ________________, (Justification: _______________________….strategic comfort)

End Result: ________________________________, but the Union was still preserved

border states
Border States
  • _________________________________________________________________________________*(Mountain Culture)

(Slaves states that HAVE NOT seceded)

Important: ________________________

LINCOLN’S REACTION

  • DO NOT make this a war to _______________ *WHY?

(2)**__________________________________** Defense: South threatened to cut off the Capital from the North.

(3) “I hope to have God on our side, but ___________________!”

- Strategic prize of the ____________ (shipment of supplies)

West Virginia (split from ______________)– no need for slave labor

Tennessee – “___________________” – volunteered for both sides

indian territory oklahoma
Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

Side with the North –

Result: thrown back into the “______” removal tone from Jacksonian Democracy and demanded to be placed on reservations

Side with the South –

  • Retaliation for the _______________________________
  • Some Cherokee were slave owners, so they would support the ___________________________
  • Confederate leaders (representation) would “__________” certain _____________________that were demanded to be paid by the 5 Civilized tribes
  • Confederate congress would accept ______________ to represent
southern vs northern advantages
Southern vs. Northern Advantages

SOUTHERN ADVANTAGES:

  • Mostly a “______________” style of fighting – only had to defend their land, make no advances / North had to “invade” the vast territory of the South
  • __________________ was on their side – familiar
  • LEADERSHIP (example: _______________ and ___________________) / Morale
  • _________________________
  • ______________________– farm boys / rebel yells *yeeeeeeeah

NORTHERN ADVANTAGES:

  • Population! Roughly ___________________- 22 million to 9
  • Industrialized / equipped with _________________________
  • Leaders: _____________________ mentality by Lincoln *Note: _________________________
  • Use of the ___________________ - Southern blockade

*In the end: the South lost the war due to “_____________________________________”

dethroning king cotton
Dethroning King Cotton
  • Europe:
    • Rich upper class pulls for the _____________________
    • *Tom –Mania - support for Uncle Tom’s Cabin / Pulling for the Union based on their support for “abolition” (_________________________________________)
    • Stockpiles of cotton…eventually ran out
    • Replaced with ______________________(2 kings of North)

Sponsored by _____________________ Mechanical Reaper

Think: If Br. and Fr. Broke the blockade for cotton, then the North could ______________________________________

    • Br. And Fr. moved on from their dependence on Southern cotton (found abundant markets in _________________)
the trent affair
The Trent Affair
  • South needed much support from Europe
  • South sent 2 officials (_______________________) to Britain to receive foreign help for the Civil War upon the _______ (British mail steamer / ____________)
  • Northern ship, the ____________, intercepted the 2 Southern men and Lincoln arrested them on an account of _________________
  • British sent thousands of troops _______________!

British Justification: threat to “_____________________”

  • Lincoln’s Reaction in the Trent Affair:

“_________________________”

*Lincoln released the prisoners to keep Britain out of war

foreign flare ups
Foreign Flare-Ups
  • The British built 2 “Laird-Rams” – ships that were built to “ram” into wooden ships of the North
  • North claimed “war is on” and Britain reluctantly bought these ships and placed them in The Royal Navy
  • British-Canada: Southerners plotted to burn Northern cities

Example: _________________– where banks were burned and only 1 death

Enemy: __________________________

Britain: Blamed the __________________________________________

______________________________in 1867

- established by British Parliament to thwart possible Union attacks against

British-Canada

  • ___________: Emperor ____________(France) set up a “_______________” in Mexico City

- Austrian ______________________________________was appointed

- America was ready to march down and kill him (direct violation of the ___________________)

Justification: Napoleon III thought America was ________________________to react to the “Hands Off” enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine

- END RESULT: ______________________________(1865) from warfare, and left Maximillian behind, to later being killed by a Mexican firing squad

comparison of lincoln and davis unconstitutional actions under lincoln
Comparison of Lincoln and Davis / Unconstitutional Actions under Lincoln
  • Confederacy: a group of states that were “_____________________” connected with a common cause

Meaning: any state could do whatever they wanted at any given time

Significant reason why Jefferson Davis never had control of the South / threat of impeachment

Idea: ________________________

*North was economically stable, South was not.

7 Unconstitutional Actions under Lincoln

(1) ________________________________________

(2) Blockading the _____________________________

(3) sent ______________ to 3 private citizens for military purposes (____________)

(4) ***suspended _____________________so arrests could be made easily

(5) "monitored" Border State elections so the vote would turn out his way

(_________________indicating their party affiliation / marching between two lines of armed official) – before the ratification of the ____________________

(6 ) *Ordered the suspension of certain ______________________(1st Amendment?)

(7) declared __________________________________

*Note: Congress was not in session / Supreme Court justified Lincoln’s actions

volunteers draft
Volunteers / “Draft” _____________
  • Volunteers and Enthusiasm wore thin as war went on
  • The Conscription Draft was created
  • Contesting the Conscription Draft
  • ________________($300) – Three Hundred dollar men

Example: a very young John D. Rockefeller

    • _________________________________
    • Led by : _______________________________
    • Reasons: __________________________ in America

Underprivileged Irish claimed victim to

Drafting / couldn’t care less about the issue of slavery

Note:

Rich Southerners (20+ slaves) could buy

their way out too

“________________________________________”

economic stresses of war
Economic Stresses of War

Problem: ______________________________

  • _____________________(raised “protective tariffs” by 5-10%) – resembling the Walker Tariff under Polk
  • The VERY FIRST “________________” was collected *not Federally regulated with “___________” until ________________
  • Raise ____________________ (alcohol and tobacco)

(4) Treasury Department printed out $450 million of “_________________”

Problem with Greenbacks: not backed by Gold – only good as America’s _______________ as seen from foreign countries - ________________

(5) ________________________(3rd leg of National Bank) = __________________ (2.6 million revenue for Union)

- first gesture since 1836 re-charter killing from Jackson

- lasted for 50 years, later replaced by the ________________in 1913 under ___________________

women in the civil war
Women in the Civil War
  • New job opportunities = men are fighting, women take their jobs (“_____________________ ”)
  • High demand for clothing (Sewing machine)
  • Some women dressed as men to fight

*_____________________(______________________/ Founder of the Red Cross) took nursing from a lowly disrespected job to one that is respected with the help of ___________________(Superintendent of Nursing for the Union)

_________________________– created by _______________________, America’s first female physician.

Purpose: to assist Union soldiers on the field

Efforts: provided ____________________________and self-confidence and would propel the women’s right movement forward

Raised millions at fairs and markets