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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. By Michael R. Solomon. Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition. Opening Vignette: Paula. What are Paula’s motivations for being a vegetarian? How is vegetarianism being promoted and who is promoting it?

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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values

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chapter 4 motivation and values

Chapter 4Motivation and Values

By Michael R. Solomon

Consumer Behavior

Buying, Having, and Being

Sixth Edition

opening vignette paula
Opening Vignette: Paula
  • What are Paula’s motivations for being a vegetarian?
  • How is vegetarianism being promoted and who is promoting it?
  • How is the beef industry responding to this movement toward a meatless diet?
  • How are values influencing individuals’ choices in consumption?
the motivation process
The Motivation Process
  • Motivation:
    • The processes that lead people to behave as they do. It occurs when a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy.
      • Utilitarian need: Provides a functional or practical benefit
      • Hedonic need: An experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies
  • Goal:
    • The end state that is desired by the consumer.
the motivation process4
The Motivation Process
  • Drive:
    • The degree of arousal present due to a discrepancy between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state
  • Want:
    • A manifestation of a need created by personal and cultural factors.
  • Motivation can be described in terms of:
    • Strength: The pull it exerts on the consumer
    • Direction: The particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension
ads reinforce desired states
Ads Reinforce Desired States
  • This ad for exercise shows men a desired state (as dictated by contemporary Western culture), and suggests a solution (purchase of equipment) to attain it.
motivational strength
Motivational Strength
  • Biological vs. Learned Needs:
    • Instinct: Innate patterns of behavior universal in a species
    • Tautology: Circular explanation (e.g. instinct is inferred from the behavior it is supposed to explain)
  • Drive Theory:
    • Biological needs produce unpleasant states of arousal. We are motivated to reduce tension caused by this arousal.
    • Homeostasis: A balanced state of arousal
  • Expectancy Theory:
    • Behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes – positive incentives – rather than pushed from within
motivational direction
Motivational Direction
  • Needs Versus Wants:
    • Want: The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need.
  • Types of Needs
    • Biogenic needs: Needs necessary to maintain life
    • Psychogenic needs: Culture-related needs (e.g. need for status, power, affiliation, etc.)
    • Utilitarian needs: Implies that consumers will emphasize the objective, tangible aspects of products
    • Hedonic needs: Subjective and experiential needs (e.g. excitement, self-confidence, fantasy, etc.)
instant gratification of needs
Instant Gratification of Needs
  • We expect today’s technical products to satisfy our needs – instantly.
motivational conflicts
Motivational Conflicts
  • Approach-Approach Conflict:
    • A person must choose between two desirable alternatives.
    • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A state of tension occurs when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another.
      • Cognitive Dissonance Reduction: Process by which people are motivated to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviors.
  • Approach-Avoidance Conflict:
    • Exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time.
  • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict:
    • Consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives.
discussion question
Discussion Question
  • Do sporting events, such as a college football game, satisfy utilitarian or hedonic needs? Which specific needs do they address?
  • Give some other examples of utilitarian and hedonic needs.
negative consequences
Negative Consequences
  • The Partnership for a Drug-Free America points out the negative consequences of drug addiction for those who are tempted to start.
classifying consumer needs
Classifying Consumer Needs
  • Henry Murray need dimensions:
    • Autonomy: Being independent
    • Defendance: Defending the self against criticism
    • Play: Engaging in pleasurable activities
  • Thematic Apperception Technique (TAT):
    • (1) What is happening?
    • (2) What led up to this situation?
    • (3) What is being thought?
    • (4) What will happen?
    • People freely project their subconscious needs onto the stimulus
classifying consumer needs cont
Classifying Consumer Needs (cont.)
  • Specific Needs and Buying Behavior:
    • Need for achievement: To attain personal accomplishment
    • Need for affiliation: To be in the company of others
    • Need for power: To control one’s environment
    • Need for uniqueness: To assert one’s individual identity
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
    • A hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs that specifies certain levels of motives.
  • Paradise: Satisfying Needs?
    • Distinct differences regarding the conceptualization of paradise between American and Dutch college students
dutch conception of paradise
Dutch Conception of Paradise
  • A Dutch respondent’s collage emphasizes this person’s conception of paradise as a place where there is interpersonal harmony and concern for the environment.
criticisms of maslow s hierarchy
Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy
  • The application is too simplistic:
    • It is possible for the same product or activity to satisfy every need.
  • It is too culture-bound:
    • The assumptions of the hierarchy may be restricted to Western culture
  • It emphasizes individual needs over group needs
    • Individuals in some cultures place more value on the welfare of the group (belongingness needs) than the needs of the individual (esteem needs)
consumer involvement
Consumer Involvement
  • Involvement:
    • A person’s perceived relevance of the object based on his/her inherent needs, values, and interests.
      • Object: A product or brand
  • Levels of Involvement: Inertia to Passion
    • Type of information processing depends on the consumer’s level of involvement
      • Simple processing: Only the basic features of the message are considered
      • Elaboration: Incoming information is linked to preexisting knowledge
increasing involvement through ads
Increasing Involvement through Ads
  • The Swiss Potato Board is trying to increase involvement with its product. The ad reads, “Recipes against boredom.”
consumer involvement cont
Consumer Involvement (cont.)
  • Involvement as a Continuum:
    • Ranges from disinterest to obsession
  • Inertia (Low involvement consumption):
    • Consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
  • Flow State(High involvement consumption):
    • Consumer is truly involved with the product, ad or web site
  • Cult Products:
    • Command fierce consumer loyalty and perhaps worship by consumers who are highly involved in the product
the many faces of involvement
The Many Faces of Involvement
  • Product Involvement:
    • Related to a consumer’s level of interest in a particular product
  • Message-Response Involvement:
    • (a.k.a. advertising involvement) Refers to a consumer’s interest in processing marketing communications
  • Purchase Situation Involvement:
    • Refers to the differences that may occur when buying the same product for different contexts
emotions versus cognitions
Emotions versus Cognitions
  • Many marketing messages, such as this ad for a cosmetic company in Taiwan, focus on emotions rather than cognitions.
measuring involvement
Measuring Involvement
  • Teasing out the Dimensions of Involvement:
    • Involvement Profile:
      • Personal interest in a product category
      • Risk importance
      • Probability of making a bad purchase
      • Pleasure value of the product category
      • How closely the product is related to the self
    • Zaichkowsky’s Personal Involvement Inventory Scale
  • Segmenting by Involvement Levels:
    • Involvement is a useful basis for market segmentation
strategies to increase involvement
Strategies to Increase Involvement
  • Appeal to hedonic needs
    • e.g. using sensory appeals to generate attention
  • Use novel stimuli
    • e.g. unusual cinematography, sudden silences, etc.
  • Use prominent stimuli
    • e.g. larger ads, more color
  • Include celebrity endorsers
  • Build a bond with consumers
    • Maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers
  • Value:
    • A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite (e.g. freedom is better than slavery)
  • Core Values:
    • General set of values that uniquely define a culture
      • Value system: A culture’s unique set of rankings of the relative importance of universal values.
    • Enculturation:
      • Process of learning the value systems of one’s own culture
    • Acculturation:
      • Process of learning the value system of another culture
    • Cultural beliefs are taught by socializationagents (i.e., parents, friends, and teachers)
core values
Core Values
  • Cleanliness is a core value in many cultures.
application of values to consumer behavior
Application of Values to Consumer Behavior
  • Useful distinctions in values for consumer behavior research
    • Cultural Values (e.g. security or happiness)
    • Consumption-Specific Values (e.g. convenient shopping or prompt service)
    • Product-Specific Values (e.g. ease-of-use or durability)
  • Virtually all consumer research is ultimately related to identification and measurement of values.
emotions versus cognitions33
Emotions versus Cognitions
  • The positive value we place on the activities of large corporations is changing among some consumers who prefer to go “anticorporate.” This ad for a coffee shop in Boulder, Colorado reflects that sentiment.
measuring cultural values
Measuring Cultural Values
  • The Rokeach Value Survey
    • Terminal Values: Desired end states
    • Instrumental Values: Actions needed to achieve terminal values
  • The List of Values (LOV) Scale
    • Developed to isolate values with more direct marketing applications
    • Identifies nine (9) consumer segments based on the values they endorse
    • Relates each value to differences in consumption
the means end chain model
The Means-End Chain Model
  • Laddering:
    • A technique that uncovers consumers’ associations between attributes and consequences
  • Hierarchical value maps:
    • Show how product attributes are linked to desired end states
  • Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy (MECCAS):
      • Message Elements
      • Consumer Benefits
      • Executional Framework
      • Leverage Point
      • Driving Force
syndicated surveys
Syndicated Surveys
  • Large-scale commercial surveys
  • Voluntary simplifiers:
    • Believe that once basic needs are sated, additional income does not add to happiness.
  • Examples:
    • VALS 2
    • GlobalScan
    • New Wave
    • Lifestyles Study
  • Materialism:
    • The importance people attach to worldly possessions
    • Tends to emphasize the well-being of the individual versus the group
    • People with highly material values tend to be less happy
    • America is a highly materialistic society
    • There are a number of anti-materialism movements
values of materialists
Values of Materialists
  • Materialists value visible symbols of success such as expensive watches.
discussion question39
Discussion Question
  • Materialists are more likely to consume for status. Can you think of products and brands that convey status?
  • There is a movement away from materialism in our culture. Can you think of products, ads, or brands that are anti-materialistic?
consumer behavior in the aftermath of 9 11
Consumer Behavior in the Aftermath of 9/11
  • Following 9/11, ads addressed people’s fears in various ways. This ad was created as part of the Advertising Community Together initiative.