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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation. Needs and Motivation. Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.

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Chapter 4 consumer motivation

Chapter 4Consumer Motivation

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Needs and motivation
Needs and Motivation

  • Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs.

  • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Figure 4 1 model of the motivation process
Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Types of needs
Types of Needs

  • Innate Needs

    • Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives

  • Acquired Needs

    • Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Chapter 4 consumer motivation

Is a body spray an innate or acquired need?

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Goals
Goals

  • The sought-after results of motivated behavior

  • Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs

  • Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Figure 4 2c goals structure for weight control
Figure 4-2cGoals Structure for Weight Control

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


The selection of goals
The Selection of Goals

  • The goals selected by an individual depend on their:

    • Personal experiences

    • Physical capacity

    • Prevailing cultural norms and values

    • Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Motivations and goals

Positive

Motivation

A driving force toward some object or condition

Approach Goal

A positive goal toward which behavior is directed

Negative

Motivation

A driving force away from some object or condition

Avoidance Goal

A negative goal from which behavior is directed away

Motivations and Goals

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Rational versus emotional motives
Rational versus Emotional Motives

  • Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon

  • Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


The dynamic nature of motivation
The Dynamic Nature of Motivation

  • Needs are never fully satisfied

  • New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied

  • People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Substitute goals
Substitute Goals

  • Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need

  • The substitute goal will dispel tension

  • Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Frustration
Frustration

  • Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration.

  • Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Defense mechanism
Defense Mechanism

  • Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Chapter 4 consumer motivation

What type of defense mechanism is this spokesperson using in this ad?

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Table 4 2 defense mechanisms

Aggression this ad?

Rationalization

Regression

Withdrawal

Projection

Autism

Identification

Repression

Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Arousal of motives
Arousal of Motives this ad?

  • Physiological arousal

  • Emotional arousal

  • Cognitive arousal

  • Environmental arousal

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Philosophies concerned with arousal of motives
Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives this ad?

  • Behaviorist School

    • Behavior is response to stimulus

    • Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored

    • Consumer does not act, but reacts

  • Cognitive School

    • Behavior is directed at goal achievement

    • Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Maslow s hierarchy of needs figure 4 10
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs this ad? Figure 4.10

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Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


A trio of needs
A Trio of Needs this ad?

  • Power

    • individual’s desire to control environment

  • Affiliation

    • need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging

  • Achievement

    • need for personal accomplishment

    • closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Measurement of motives
Measurement of Motives this ad?

  • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques

  • Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data

  • Construction of a measurement scale can be complex

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Motivational research
Motivational Research this ad?

  • Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations

  • Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Qualitative motivational research
Qualitative Motivational Research this ad?

  • Metaphor analysis

  • Storytelling

  • Word association and sentence completion

  • Thematic apperception test

  • Drawing pictures and photo-sorts

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall