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Developed by Raji Kaval MS RD Nutrition Specialist Jamie Sanchez RD Nutrition Specialist Kristin Williams MA Teacher Advisor. Introduction to Nutrition.

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Introduction to Nutrition

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Developed by

Raji Kaval MS RD

Nutrition Specialist

Jamie Sanchez RD

Nutrition Specialist

Kristin Williams MA

Teacher Advisor

Introduction to Nutrition

network for a healthy california lausd
This program is funded by USDA’s Food Stamp Program through the California Department of Public Health’s Network for a Healthy California. These institutions are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. For information on the Food stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.Network for a Healthy California--LAUSD
goal of the network
To promote the consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as the encouragement of physical activity among children and their parents, who are eligible for the Food Stamp program.Goal of the Network

Leading Contributorsto Premature Death*

* McGinnis JM, Foege WH. “Actual Causes of Death in the United States.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1993, vol. 270, pp. 2207-2212.

number of americans affected by diet and inactivity related diseases

Seriously Overweight/Obese1 129,250,000

High Blood Pressure1 50,000,000

Diabetes2 17,000,000

Coronary Heart Disease1 12,900,000

Osteoporosis3 10,000,000

Cancer4 8,900,000

Stroke1 4,700,000


Total 232,750,000

Number of Americans Affected by Diet- and Inactivity-Related Diseases

US Population as of March 12, 2008 was 303,617,664

1. American Heart Association (AHA). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics -- 2003 Update. Dallas, TX: AHA, 2002.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Diabetes: Disabling, Deadly, and on the Rise, At-a-Glance 2002. Atlanta: CDC, 2002.

3. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporosis Disease Statistics: Fast Facts. Accessed at <> on January 10, 2002.

4. American Cancer Society (ACS). Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. Atlanta, GA: ACS, 2003

why is it important for classroom teachers to teach nutrition
Studies have shown that adequate nutritional intake has positive benefits on learning as well (as reported in the ASCD Health in Education Network Update) :

improved attention span and short-term memory

improved emotional affect and social functioning

improved attendance at school

Why is it important for classroom teachers to teach Nutrition ?
one size does not fit all
USDA created 12 pyramids for 12 calorie levels, from 1,000 to 3,200.

Calorie levels are based on:

* Age

* Gender

* Activity

* Height

* Weight

One Size Does Not Fit All!
three key messages
Three Key Messages
  • Make smart choices within and among the food groups.
  • Keep a balance between food intake and physical activity.
  • Get the most nutrients from your calories.
whole grains
Whole-wheat flour

Bulgar (cracked wheat)


Whole cornmeal

Brown rice

Kasha (buckwheat groats)

Whole Grains
make half your grains whole
Check ingredient lists on labels.

Look at dietary fiber on Nutrition Facts panel.

Make gradual changes… build up to 100% whole grain breads and cereals.

Substitute whole grains for refined in recipes (start with half).

Be adventurous and try quinoa, bulgar, kasha, and other grains.

Add whole grains to mixed dishes.

Make Half Your Grains Whole
Carbohydrates are the chief and preferred energy source of the body. It is the only source of energy for your brain.

45-65% of the calories should come from carbohydrates*

Food Sources : Grains, fruits and vegetables

1gm of carbohydrate yields 4 calories

* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.


Quickly enter blood stream


Soft Drinks


Table Sugar


White Bread



Release sugar into blood stream slowly

Choose complex over simple for better nutrition




Whole Grains


too much too little
Carbohydrates are stored in the body as glycogen to be used for energy at a later time

Converted to body fat only if you consume more calories than your body needs

When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, muscle, fat, and protein are broken down to make fuel for the brain

Too much / Too little
Dietary fibers are part of plant foods that are not digested when eaten. They are not absorbed in the body and hence are not nutrients.

Insoluble Fibers – are not soluble in water

Examples: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin

Sources: Bran, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables.

Soluble Fibers – absorbs water and becomes gummy

Examples: Gums, Pectins, and mucilages

Sources: Dried beans, oats, barley and many fruits and vegetables.

vary your veggies
Help your children enjoy:

* Dark green vegetables

* Orange vegetables

* Legumes

* Starchy vegetables

* Other vegetables

Vary Your Veggies
vary your veggies27
Set a good example!

Buy fresh veggies in season.

Use more fresh or frozen, less canned (except low sodium).

Have cut veggies available for snacks.

Have salad with dinner every night.

Add veggies to casseroles, pasta sauce, quick breads, etc.

Select fast food salad rather than fries, at least sometimes.

Choose dark salad greens over iceberg.

Vary Your Veggies
focus on fruits
Use fruits in salads, side dishes,main dishes, desserts, and for snacks.

Keep fresh and dried fruit handy for snacks.

Cut up fruit on cereal, pancakes, and waffles.

Include canned and frozen fruits.

Buy in season.

Be adventurous and try unusual fruits.

Choose fruit more often than juice.

Limit juice to about 6 ounces a day.

Focus on Fruits
Vitamins are nutrients that are needed in small quantities and each of them have important and specific functions in the body.

Water soluble

Dissolve in water and carried in blood stream

Significant amounts are not stored in body. Excess are excreted

Ex. All B Vitamins and Vitamin C

Fat soluble

Dissolve in fat and carried in blood stream

Body can store fat soluble vitamins

Too much can be harmful

Ex. Vitamin A, D, E and K

Minerals are naturally occurring chemical elements found throughout the body in bones, teeth, muscle, blood, and nerves.

Macro or Major Minerals :

Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium

Micro or Trace Minerals :

Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.

antioxidants and phytochemicals
Antioxidants protect the cells in our bodies. Antioxidants appear to prevent or repair damage caused to the body’s cells by harmful substances called “free radicals”

Ex: Carotenoids, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium.

Phytochemicals are neither vitamins nor minerals and occur naturally in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables and grains. They are responsible for the vibrant colors in fruits and vegetables. They are powerful antioxidants.

Ex: Anthocyanins – blue and purple colored fruits and vegetables; Flavonoids – berries and cherries; Tannins – lentils, beans, tea, grapes.

Antioxidants and Phytochemicals
get your calcium rich foods
Focus on fat-free or low-fat milk.

Drink fat-free or low-fat milk with meals and snacks.

Choose low-fat cheeses.

Use milk to make hot cereals.

Have low-fat yogurt as a snack.

Use lactose-free products if needed.

Select non-dairy high-calcium foods and beverages if desired

Get Your Calcium Rich Foods
go lean with protein
Select leanest cuts of meat.

Trim all fat and remove skin from poultry.

Prepare with no added fat.

Choose lean luncheon meats.

Eat beans as main dishes.

Eat fatty fish in moderation.

Include nuts in snacks, salads, and main dishes.

Go Lean With Protein
10-35% of the calories should come from Proteins*

needed for repair and growth

Food Sources

Animal sources:

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, and Milk

Plant sources:

Beans, Peas, nuts, tofu, and grain products

1 gm of protein yields 4 calories

* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.

too much protein
A high protein diet may be high in fat, contributing to:

Heart Disease


Some cancers

Side effects of too much protein:

Metabolic imbalance


Nervous system disorders

Kidney problems


May cause Calcium loss*

* SOURCE: American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2002

Too Much Protein
20-35% of your calories should come from fat*.

Fats supply energy and support other functions

Nutrient transport- Vitamins A, D, E, K


healthy skin

Protects vital organs

part of many body cells

They add flavor, texture to your food.

High satiety value.

* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.

Food Sources:

Unsaturated (liquid at room temperature)

Oils: canola, corn, olive, soybean, and sunflower.

Foods naturally high in oil: nuts, olives, avocados, and some fish

Foods with oil as the main ingredient: mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and margarine

Saturated (solid at room temperature)

Butter, margarine, meat fat, poultry fat, and milk products

physical activity recommendation for adults and children
At least 30 minutes of Physical Activity* for adults and 60 minutes for children most (preferably all) days of the week

* Physical activity level should be between moderate to vigorous level

Physical Activity Recommendation forAdults and Children
moderate physical activities

Walking briskly (about 3½ miles per hour)

Gardening/yard work


Golf (walking and carrying clubs)

Weight training (general light workout)

Bicycling (less than 10 miles per hour)


“Moderate” Physical Activities
vigorous physical activities


Heavy yard work, such as chopping wood

Swimming (freestyle laps)

Basketball (competitive)

Running,jogging (5 miles per hour)

Bicycling (more than 10 miles per hour)

Weight lifting (vigorous effort)

Walking very fast (4½ miles per hour)

“Vigorous” Physical Activities
resources – official website of the new food guidance system - federal portal to many nutrition and health websites - reliable nutrition resources for consumers and professionals – University of Florida/IFAS downloadable Extension publications LONG BEACH USD TEACHER TRAININGS