Developed by Raji Kaval MS RD Nutrition Specialist Jamie Sanchez RD Nutrition Specialist Kristin Williams MA Teacher Advisor. Introduction to Nutrition.
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* McGinnis JM, Foege WH. “Actual Causes of Death in the United States.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1993, vol. 270, pp. 2207-2212.
High Blood Pressure1 50,000,000
Coronary Heart Disease1 12,900,000
Total 232,750,000Number of Americans Affected by Diet- and Inactivity-Related Diseases
US Population as of March 12, 2008 was 303,617,664
1. American Heart Association (AHA). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics -- 2003 Update. Dallas, TX: AHA, 2002.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Diabetes: Disabling, Deadly, and on the Rise, At-a-Glance 2002. Atlanta: CDC, 2002.
3. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporosis Disease Statistics: Fast Facts. Accessed at <http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/stats.htm> on January 10, 2002.
4. American Cancer Society (ACS). Cancer Facts & Figures 2003. Atlanta, GA: ACS, 2003
improved attention span and short-term memory
improved emotional affect and social functioning
improved attendance at schoolWhy is it important for classroom teachers to teach Nutrition ?
Calorie levels are based on:
* WeightOne Size Does Not Fit All!
Look at dietary fiber on Nutrition Facts panel.
Make gradual changes… build up to 100% whole grain breads and cereals.
Substitute whole grains for refined in recipes (start with half).
Be adventurous and try quinoa, bulgar, kasha, and other grains.
Add whole grains to mixed dishes.Make Half Your Grains Whole
45-65% of the calories should come from carbohydrates*
Food Sources : Grains, fruits and vegetables
1gm of carbohydrate yields 4 calories
* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.CARBOHYDRATES
Converted to body fat only if you consume more calories than your body needs
When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, muscle, fat, and protein are broken down to make fuel for the brainToo much / Too little
Insoluble Fibers – are not soluble in water
Examples: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
Sources: Bran, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables.
Soluble Fibers – absorbs water and becomes gummy
Examples: Gums, Pectins, and mucilages
Sources: Dried beans, oats, barley and many fruits and vegetables.Fiber
Buy fresh veggies in season.
Use more fresh or frozen, less canned (except low sodium).
Have cut veggies available for snacks.
Have salad with dinner every night.
Add veggies to casseroles, pasta sauce, quick breads, etc.
Select fast food salad rather than fries, at least sometimes.
Choose dark salad greens over iceberg.Vary Your Veggies
Keep fresh and dried fruit handy for snacks.
Cut up fruit on cereal, pancakes, and waffles.
Include canned and frozen fruits.
Buy in season.
Be adventurous and try unusual fruits.
Choose fruit more often than juice.
Limit juice to about 6 ounces a day.Focus on Fruits
Dissolve in water and carried in blood stream
Significant amounts are not stored in body. Excess are excreted
Ex. All B Vitamins and Vitamin C
Dissolve in fat and carried in blood stream
Body can store fat soluble vitamins
Too much can be harmful
Ex. Vitamin A, D, E and KVITAMINS
Macro or Major Minerals :
Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium
Micro or Trace Minerals :
Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Zinc.MINERALS
Ex: Carotenoids, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium.
Phytochemicals are neither vitamins nor minerals and occur naturally in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables and grains. They are responsible for the vibrant colors in fruits and vegetables. They are powerful antioxidants.
Ex: Anthocyanins – blue and purple colored fruits and vegetables; Flavonoids – berries and cherries; Tannins – lentils, beans, tea, grapes.Antioxidants and Phytochemicals
needed for repair and growth
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Eggs, and Milk
Beans, Peas, nuts, tofu, and grain products
1 gm of protein yields 4 calories
* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.PROTEIN
Side effects of too much protein:
Nervous system disorders
May cause Calcium loss*
* SOURCE: American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2002Too Much Protein
Fats supply energy and support other functions
Nutrient transport- Vitamins A, D, E, K
Protects vital organs
part of many body cells
They add flavor, texture to your food.
High satiety value.
* Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. 2002.FATS
Unsaturated (liquid at room temperature)
Oils: canola, corn, olive, soybean, and sunflower.
Foods naturally high in oil: nuts, olives, avocados, and some fish
Foods with oil as the main ingredient: mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and margarine
Saturated (solid at room temperature)
Butter, margarine, meat fat, poultry fat, and milk productsFATS
* Physical activity level should be between moderate to vigorous levelPhysical Activity Recommendation forAdults and Children
www.nutrition.gov - federal portal to many nutrition and health websites
www.nal.usda.gov/fnic - reliable nutrition resources for consumers and professionals
edis.ifas.ufl.edu – University of Florida/IFAS downloadable Extension publications
www.lapublichealth.org- LONG BEACH USD TEACHER TRAININGSResources