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.NET Compact Framework 2.0 Optimizing For Performance. Roman Batoukov FUN403 Development Lead .NET Compact Framework Microsoft Corporation. FX. Rich class libraries to make your life easy!. GUI: Forms GUI: Drawing (2D & 3D) Collections IO, Networking, Crypto. Native interop

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.NET Compact Framework 2.0 Optimizing For Performance


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    1. .NET Compact Framework 2.0Optimizing For Performance Roman BatoukovFUN403 Development Lead .NET Compact Framework Microsoft Corporation

    2. FX Rich class libraries to make your life easy! • GUI: Forms • GUI: Drawing (2D & 3D) • Collections • IO, Networking, Crypto • Native interop • Web services • Data & Xml • Globalization CLR Execution Engine provides typesafe Runtime for managed code • Type system • Loader • JIT Compiler • Garbage collector • Debugger Windows CE Low level operating system-specific functionality • Threads • Memory • Networking • File I/O .NET Compact Framework Visual Studio

    3. .NET Compact FrameworkHow we are different? • Memory constraints • Storage – Flash/ROM • Physical Memory • Virtual Memory – 32MB per process • Design • 28% of the surface area in 8% of the size of full .NET Framework • Portable JIT Compiler • Fast code generation, less optimized • May pitch JIT-compiled code • No NGen, install time or persisted code • Interpreted virtual calls (no v-tables) • Sparse loading of metadata

    4. Measuring PerformanceOverview • Micro-benchmarks versus Scenarios • Benchmarking tips • Use Environment.TickCount to measure • Measure times greater than 1 second • Start from known state • Ensure nothing else is running • Measure multiple times, take average • Run each test in own AppDomain/Process • Log results at the end • Understand JIT-time versus run-time cost

    5. .NET Compact Framework .NET Compact Framework Performance v1->v2 Biggeris better Smalleris better

    6. Measuring PerformancePerformance counters • <My App>.stat (formerly mscoree.stat) • http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/enus/dnnetcomp/html/netcfperf.asp • Registry • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\.NETCompactFramework\PerfMonitorCounters (DWORD) = 1 • What does .stat tell you? • Working set and performance statistics • More counters added in v2 • Generics usage • COM interop usage • Number of boxed valuetypes • Threading and timers • GUI objects • Network activity (socket bytes send/received)

    7. .stat counter total last datum n mean min max Total Program Run Time (ms) 55937 - - - - - App Domains Created 18 - - - - - App Domains Unloaded 18 - - - - - Assemblies Loaded 323 - - - - - Classes Loaded 18852 - - - - - Methods Loaded 37353 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded 730 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded per Definition 730 8 385 1 1 8 Open Types Loaded 78 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded 46 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded per Definition 46 1 40 1 1 2 Open Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Threads in Thread Pool - 0 6 1 0 3 Pending Timers - 0 93 0 0 1 Scheduled Timers 46 - - - - - Timers Delayed by Thread Pool Limit 0 - - - - - Work Items Queued 46 - - - - - Uncontested Monitor.Enter Calls 57240 - - - - - Contested Monitor.Enter Calls 0 - - - - - Peak Bytes Allocated (native + managed) 4024363 - - - - - Managed Objects Allocated 1015100 - - - - - Managed Bytes Allocated 37291444 28 1015100 36 8 55588 Managed String Objects Allocated 112108 - - - - - Bytes of String Objects Allocated 4596658 - - - - - Garbage Collections (GC) 33 - - - - - Bytes Collected By GC 25573036 41592 33 774940 41592 1096328 Managed Bytes In Use After GC - 23528 33 259414 23176 924612 Total Bytes In Use After GC - 3091342 33 2954574 1833928 3988607 GC Compactions 17 - - - - - Code Pitchings 6 - - - - - Calls to GC.Collect 0 - - - - - GC Latency Time (ms) 279 16 33 8 0 31 Pinned Objects 156 - - - - - Objects Moved by Compactor 73760 - - - - - Objects Not Moved by Compactor 11811 - - - - - Objects Finalized 6383 - - - - - Boxed Value Types 350829 - - - - - Process Heap - 1626 430814 511970 952 962130 Short Term Heap - 0 178228 718 0 21532 JIT Heap - 0 88135 357796 0 651663 App Domain Heap - 0 741720 647240 0 833370 GC Heap - 0 376 855105 0 2097152 Native Bytes Jitted 7202214 152 26910 267 80 5448 Methods Jitted 26910 - - - - - Bytes Pitched 1673873 0 7047 237 0 5448 Peak Bytes Allocated (native + managed) JIT Heap App Domain Heap GC Heap Garbage Collections (GC) GC Latency Time (ms) Boxed Value Types Managed String Objects Allocated

    8. .NET Compact Framework FX Redist Globalization Crypto I/O Net GUI Microsoft.VisualBasic System.Reflection System.Globalization System.Cryptography System.IO.Ports System.WebServices DirectX.DirectD3DM MSI Setup(ActiveSync) System System.Data Microsoft. Win32.Registry System.Net.Http* Windows.Forms Per Device CABInstall (SMS, etc) mscorlib System.Xml System.IO.File System.Net.Sockets System.Drawing Visual Studio CLR Debugger JIT Compiler& GC CalendarData Debug Engine ClassLoader AssemblyCache CultureData ICorDbg App DomainLoader NativeInterop Host Windows CE ProcessLoader Memory and Threading Sorting Crypto API File I/O NTLM CommonControls Managed Loader Cert/SecurityVerification File Mapping Encodings Registry SSL GDI/GWES Casing Sockets D3DM

    9. Common Language RuntimeExecution engine • Call path • Managed calls are more expensive than native • Instance call: ~2-3X the cost of a native function call • Virtual call: ~1.4X the cost of a managed instance call • Platform invoke: ~5X the cost of managed instance call (*Marshal int parameter) • Properties are calls • JIT compilers • All platforms has the same optimizing JIT compiler architecture in v2 • Optimizations • Method inlining for simple methods • Variable enregistration • String interning

    10. public class Shape { protected int m_volume; public virtual int Volume { get {return m_volume;} } } public class Cube:Shape { public MyType(int vol) { m_volume = vol; } } Common Language RuntimeCall path (sample) public class Shape { protected int m_volume; public int Volume { get {return m_volume;} } } public class Cube:Shape { public MyType(int vol) { m_volume = vol; } }

    11. public class MyCollection { private const int m_capacity = 10000; private Shape[] storage = new Shape[m_capacity]; … public void Sort() { Shape tmp; for (int i=0; i<m_capacity-1; i++) { for (int j=0; j<m_capacity-1-i; j++) if (storage[j+1].Volume < storage[j].Volume){ tmp = storage[j]; storage[j] = storage[j+1]; storage[j+1] = tmp; } } } } Common Language RuntimeCall path (sample) callvirt instance int32 Shape::get_Volume()

    12. public class Shape { protected int m_volume; public virtual int Volume { get {return m_volume;} } } public class Cube:Shape { public MyType(int vol) { m_volume = vol; } } • No virtual call overhead • Inlined (no call overhead at all) • ~ Equal to accessing field Common Language RuntimeCall path (sample) public class Shape { protected int m_volume; public int Volume { get {return m_volume;} } } public class Cube:Shape { public MyType(int vol) { m_volume = vol; } } 57 sec 39 sec

    13. Common Language Runtime‘The Memory Bill’ • Shared by all .NET applications running • .NET Compact Framework CLR DLLs • .NET assemblies (memory mapped) • Dynamic, per process memory costs • Objects allocated • Threads stacks • Number of classes and methods • Runtime representation of metadata • JIT compiled code • Unmanaged allocations (not under control of the CLR) • Operating System • Native DLLs called by application via P/Invoke

    14. Common Language RuntimeMemory heaps • Five memory heaps to reduce fragmentation

    15. Going Into The BackgroundYahtzee game Application goesinto background or low on memory

    16. Real World MeasurementsYahtzee game

    17. Common Language RuntimeGarbage Collector (GC) • Managed allocations are FAST • 7.5MB per sec (allocating 8 byte objects) • GC manages it’s own heap • Allocates 64KB blocks, 1MB cache • Use VirtualAlloc to enable release of virtual and physical memory back to system • Compacts heap when fragmentation occurs

    18. Common Language RuntimeGarbage Collector • What triggers a GC? • Memory allocation failure • 1M of GC objects allocated (v2) • Application going to background • GC.Collect() (Avoid “helping” the GC!) • In general, if you don’t allocate objects, GC won’t occur • Beware of side-effects of calls that may allocateobjects • What happens at GC time? • Freezes all threads at safe point • Finds all live objects and marks them • An object is live if it is reachable from root location • Unmarked objects are freed and added to finalizer queue • Finalizers are run on a separate thread • GC pools are compacted if required • Return free memory to the operating system

    19. Common Language RuntimeGarbage Collector GC Latency per collection

    20. Common Language RuntimeGarbage Collector Allocation rate

    21. Common Language RuntimeWhere garbage comes from? • Unnecessary string allocations • Strings are immutable • String manipulations (Concat(), etc.) cause copies • Use StringBuilder http://weblogs.asp.net/ricom/archive/2003/12/02/40778.aspx String result = ""; for (int i=0; i<10000; i++) { result += ".NET Compact Framework"; result += " Rocks!"; } StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(); for (int i=0; i<10000; i++){ result.Append(".NET Compact Framework"); result.Append(" Rocks!"); }

    22. .stat Run time 173 sec counter total last datum n mean min max Total Program Run Time (ms) 11843 - - - - - App Domains Created 1 - - - - - App Domains Unloaded 1 - - - - - Assemblies Loaded 2 - - - - - Classes Loaded 175 - - - - - Methods Loaded 198 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Threads in Thread Pool - 0 2 0 0 1 Pending Timers - 0 2 0 0 1 Scheduled Timers 1 - - - - - Timers Delayed by Thread Pool Limit 0 - - - - - Work Items Queued 1 - - - - - Uncontested Monitor.Enter Calls 2 - - - - - Contested Monitor.Enter Calls 0 - - - - - Peak Bytes Allocated (native + managed) 3326004 - - - - - Managed Objects Allocated 60266 - - - - - Managed Bytes Allocated 5801679432 28 60266 96267 8 580020 Managed String Objects Allocated 20041 - - - - - Bytes of String Objects Allocated 5800480578 - - - - - Garbage Collections (GC) 4912 - - - - - Bytes Collected By GC 5918699036 1160076 4912 1204946 597824 1572512 Managed Bytes In Use After GC - 580752 4912 381831 8364 580752 Total Bytes In Use After GC - 1810560 4912 1611885 1097856 1810560 GC Compactions 0 - - - - - Code Pitchings 0 - - - - - Calls to GC.Collect 0 - - - - - GC Latency Time (ms) 686 0 4912 0 0 16 Pinned Objects 0 - - - - - Objects Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Not Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Finalized 1 - - - - - Boxed Value Types 3 - - - - - Process Heap - 278 235 2352 68 8733 Short Term Heap - 0 278 986 0 10424 JIT Heap - 0 360 12103 0 24444 App Domain Heap - 0 1341 46799 0 64562 GC Heap - 0 35524 2095727 0 3276800 Native Bytes Jitted 22427 140 98 228 68 1367 Methods Jitted 98 - - - - - Bytes Pitched 0 0 0 0 0 0 Methods Pitched 0 - - - - - Method Pitch Latency Time (ms) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exceptions Thrown 0 - - - - - Platform Invoke Calls 0 - - - - - String result = ""; for (int i=0; i<10000; i++) { result += ".NET Compact Framework"; result += " Rocks!"; } Managed String Objects Allocated 20040 Garbage Collections (GC) 4912 Bytes of String Objects Allocate 5,800,480,574 Bytes Collected By GC 5,918,699,036 GC latency 107128 ms

    23. .stat Run time 0.1 sec counter total last datum n mean min max Total Program Run Time (ms) 11843 - - - - - App Domains Created 1 - - - - - App Domains Unloaded 1 - - - - - Assemblies Loaded 2 - - - - - Classes Loaded 175 - - - - - Methods Loaded 198 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Threads in Thread Pool - 0 2 0 0 1 Pending Timers - 0 2 0 0 1 Scheduled Timers 1 - - - - - Timers Delayed by Thread Pool Limit 0 - - - - - Work Items Queued 1 - - - - - Uncontested Monitor.Enter Calls 2 - - - - - Contested Monitor.Enter Calls 0 - - - - - Peak Bytes Allocated (native + managed) 3326004 - - - - - Managed Objects Allocated 60266 - - - - - Managed Bytes Allocated 5801679432 28 60266 96267 8 580020 Managed String Objects Allocated 20041 - - - - - Bytes of String Objects Allocated 5800480578 - - - - - Garbage Collections (GC) 4912 - - - - - Bytes Collected By GC 5918699036 1160076 4912 1204946 597824 1572512 Managed Bytes In Use After GC - 580752 4912 381831 8364 580752 Total Bytes In Use After GC - 1810560 4912 1611885 1097856 1810560 GC Compactions 0 - - - - - Code Pitchings 0 - - - - - Calls to GC.Collect 0 - - - - - GC Latency Time (ms) 686 0 4912 0 0 16 Pinned Objects 0 - - - - - Objects Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Not Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Finalized 1 - - - - - Boxed Value Types 3 - - - - - Process Heap - 278 235 2352 68 8733 Short Term Heap - 0 278 986 0 10424 JIT Heap - 0 360 12103 0 24444 App Domain Heap - 0 1341 46799 0 64562 GC Heap - 0 35524 2095727 0 3276800 Native Bytes Jitted 22427 140 98 228 68 1367 Methods Jitted 98 - - - - - Bytes Pitched 0 0 0 0 0 0 Methods Pitched 0 - - - - - Method Pitch Latency Time (ms) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exceptions Thrown 0 - - - - - Platform Invoke Calls 0 - - - - - StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(); for (int i=0; i<10000; i++){ result.Append(".NET Compact Framework"); result.Append(" Rocks!"); } Managed String Objects Allocated 56 Bytes of String Objects Allocated 2097718 Garbage Collections (GC) 2 Bytes Collected By GC 1081620 GC Latency 21 ms

    24. Common Language RuntimeWhere garbage comes from? • Unnecessary boxing • Value types allocated on the stack (fast to allocate) • Boxing causes a heap allocation and a copy • Use strongly typed arrays and collections (Framework collections are NOT strongly typed) class Hashtable { struct bucket { Object key; Object val; } bucket[] buckets; public Object this[Object key] { get; set; } }

    25. Common Language RuntimeSample Code: Value Types and boxing public struct AccountId { public int m_number; public override int GetHashCode() { return m_number; } } public struct AccountData { private int m_balance; public int Balance { get {return m_balance;} set {m_balance=value;} } } public class Accounts { public const int num = 10000; Object[] accounts = new Object[num]; public Object this[Object id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } } public class Accounts { public const int num = 10000; AccountData[] accounts = new AccountData[num]; public AccountData this[AccountId id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } }

    26. Accounts ac = new Accounts(); int i; for (i = 0; i < Accounts.num_accounts; i++) { AccountData rec = new AccountData(); rec.Balance = 100; AccountId id; id.m_number = i; ac[id] = rec; } long iterations = 0; long start = Environment.TickCount; do { for (i = 0; i < Accounts.num_accounts; i++) { AccountId id; id.m_number = i; AccountData rec = (AccountData)ac[ id ]; rec.Balance-=10; ac[ id ]=rec; } iterations += i; } while (Environment.TickCount - start < 1000); Common Language RuntimeSample Code: Value Types and boxing

    27. Common Language RuntimeSample Code: Value Types and boxing 0.15M iter/sec Boxed value types 4138460 Garbage Collections (GC) 4 Bytes Collected By GC 4138460 GC Latency Time 132 ms 2.5M iter/sec Boxed value types 2 Garbage Collections (GC) 0 Bytes Collected By GC 0 GC Latency Time 0 ms public class Accounts { public const int num = 10000; Object[] accounts = new Object[num]; public Object this[Object id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } } public class Accounts { public const int num = 10000; AccountData[] accounts=new AccountData[num]; public AccountData this[AccountId id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } }

    28. public class Accounts<U, V> { public const int num_accounts = 10000; private U[] accounts = new U[num_accounts]; public U this[V id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } } Accounts<AccountData, AccountId> ac = new Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>(); int i; for (i = 0; i < Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>.num_accounts; i++) { AccountData rec = new AccountData(); rec.Balance = 100; AccountId id; id.m_number = i; ac[id] = rec; } long iterations = 0; long start = Environment.TickCount; do { for (i = 0; i < Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>.num_accounts; i++) { AccountId id; id.m_number = i; AccountData rec = (AccountData)ac[id]; rec.Balance-=10; ac[id]=rec; } iterations += i; } while (Environment.TickCount - start < 1000); Common Language RuntimeSample Code: Generics

    29. public class Accounts<U, V> { public const int num_accounts = 10000; private U[] accounts = new U[num_accounts]; public U this[V id] { get {return accounts[id.GetHashCode()];} set {accounts[id.GetHashCode()] = value;} } } Accounts<AccountData, AccountId> ac = new Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>(); int i; for (i = 0; i < Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>.num_accounts; i++) { AccountData rec = new AccountData(); rec.Balance = 100; AccountId id; id.m_number = i; ac[id] = rec; } long iterations = 0; long start = Environment.TickCount; do { for (i = 0; i < Accounts<AccountData, AccountId>.num_accounts; i++) { AccountId id; id.m_number = i; AccountData rec = (AccountData)ac[id]; rec.Balance-=10; ac[id]=rec; } iterations += i; } while (Environment.TickCount - start < 1000); Common Language RuntimeSample Code: Generics Untyped 0.15M iter/sec Strongly typed 2.5M iter/sec Generic 2.5M iter/sec

    30. .stat counter total last datum n mean min max Total Program Run Time (ms) 11843 - - - - - App Domains Created 1 - - - - - App Domains Unloaded 1 - - - - - Assemblies Loaded 2 - - - - - Classes Loaded 175 - - - - - Methods Loaded 198 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Types Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Types Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Closed Methods Loaded per Definition 0 0 0 0 0 0 Open Methods Loaded 0 - - - - - Threads in Thread Pool - 0 2 0 0 1 Pending Timers - 0 2 0 0 1 Scheduled Timers 1 - - - - - Timers Delayed by Thread Pool Limit 0 - - - - - Work Items Queued 1 - - - - - Uncontested Monitor.Enter Calls 2 - - - - - Contested Monitor.Enter Calls 0 - - - - - Peak Bytes Allocated (native + managed) 3326004 - - - - - Managed Objects Allocated 60266 - - - - - Managed Bytes Allocated 5801679432 28 60266 96267 8 580020 Managed String Objects Allocated 20041 - - - - - Bytes of String Objects Allocated 5800480578 - - - - - Garbage Collections (GC) 4912 - - - - - Bytes Collected By GC 5918699036 1160076 4912 1204946 597824 1572512 Managed Bytes In Use After GC - 580752 4912 381831 8364 580752 Total Bytes In Use After GC - 1810560 4912 1611885 1097856 1810560 GC Compactions 0 - - - - - Code Pitchings 0 - - - - - Calls to GC.Collect 0 - - - - - GC Latency Time (ms) 686 0 4912 0 0 16 Pinned Objects 0 - - - - - Objects Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Not Moved by Compactor 0 - - - - - Objects Finalized 1 - - - - - Boxed Value Types 3 - - - - - Process Heap - 278 235 2352 68 8733 Short Term Heap - 0 278 986 0 10424 JIT Heap - 0 360 12103 0 24444 App Domain Heap - 0 1341 46799 0 64562 GC Heap - 0 35524 2095727 0 3276800 Native Bytes Jitted 22427 140 98 228 68 1367 Methods Jitted 98 - - - - - Bytes Pitched 0 0 0 0 0 0 Methods Pitched 0 - - - - - Method Pitch Latency Time (ms) 0 0 0 0 0 0 Exceptions Thrown 0 - - - - - Platform Invoke Calls 0 - - - - - Boxed value types 2 Garbage Collections (GC) 0 Bytes Collected By GC 0 GC Latency Time 0 ms Closed Types Loaded 1 Closed Types per definition mean=1 max=1

    31. Common Language RuntimeGenerics • Strong typing without code duplication • Fully specialized implementation in .NET Compact Framework v2 • Pros • Always strongly typed • No unnecessary boxing and type casts • Specialized code is more efficient than shared • Cons • Internal execution engine data structures and JIT-compiled code aren’t shared • List<int>, List<string>, List<MyType> • http://blogs.msdn.com/romanbat/archive/2005/01/06/348114.aspx

    32. Common Language RuntimeFinalization and Dispose • Cost of finalizers • Non-deterministic cleanup • Extends lifetime of object • In general, rely on GC for automatic memory cleanup • The exceptions to the rule… • If your object contains an unmanaged resource that the GC is unaware of, you need to implement a finalizer • Also implement Dispose pattern to release unmanaged resource in deterministic manner • Dispose method should suppress finalization (FxCop rule) • If the object you are using implements Dispose, call it when you are done with the object • ‘Objects Finalized’ performance counter

    33. Common Language RuntimeExceptions • Exceptions are cheap…until you throw • Throw exceptions in exceptional circumstances • Do not use exceptions for normal flow control • Use performance counters to track the number of exceptions thrown • Replace “On Error/Goto” with “Try/Catch/Finally” in Microsoft Visual Basic .NET

    34. Common Language RuntimeReflection • Reflection can be expensive • Reflection performance cost • Type comparisons (for example: typeof() ) • Member access (for example: Type.InvokeMember()) • Think ~10-100x slower • Working set cost • Type and Member enumerations (for example: Assembly.GetTypes(), Type.GetMethods()) • Runtime data structures • Think ~100 bytes per loaded type, ~80 bytes per loaded method • Be aware of APIs that use reflection as a side effect • Override • Object.ToString() • GetHashCode() and Equals() (for value types)

    35. Common Language RuntimeBuilding a Cost Model for Managed Math • Math performance • 32 bit integers: Similar to native math • 64 bit integers: ~5-10X cost of native math • Floating point: Similar to native math • ARM processors do not have FPU

    36. .NET Compact Framework FX Redist Globalization Crypto I/O Net GUI Microsoft.VisualBasic System.Reflection System.Globalization System.Cryptography System.IO.Ports System.WebServices DirectX.DirectD3DM MSI Setup(ActiveSync) System System.Data Microsoft. Win32.Registry System.Net.Http* Windows.Forms Per Device CABInstall (SMS, etc) mscorlib System.Xml System.IO.File System.Net.Sockets System.Drawing Visual Studio CLR Debugger JIT Compiler& GC CalendarData Debug Engine ClassLoader AssemblyCache CultureData ICorDbg App DomainLoader NativeInterop Host Windows CE ProcessLoader Memory and Threading Sorting Crypto API File I/O NTLM CommonControls Managed Loader Cert/SecurityVerification File Mapping Encodings Registry SSL GDI/GWES Casing Sockets D3DM

    37. Base Class LibraryCollections • Pre-size collection classes appropriately • Default capacity is small (for example 4 for ArrayList) • Resizing creates unnecessary copies • Avoid unnecessary boxing and type casts – use generic collections • Full support for all generic collections in the .NET Compact Framework v2!

    38. Windows FormsBest Practices • Load and cache Forms in the background • Populate data separate from Form.Show() • Pre-populate data, or • Load data async to Form.Show() • Use BeginUpdate/EndUpdate when it is available • e.g. ListView, TreeView • Use SuspendLayout/ResumeLayout when repositioning controls • Keep event handling code tight • Process bigger operations asynchronously • Blocking in event handlers will affect UI responsiveness • Form load performance • Reduce the number of method calls during initialization

    39. Graphics And GamesBest Practices • Compose to off-screen buffers to minimize direct to screen blitting • Approximately 50% faster • Avoid transparent blitting in areas that require performance • Approximate 1/3 speed of normal blitting • Consider using pre-rendered images vs using System.Drawing rendering primitives • Need to measure on a case-by-case basis

    40. XMLBest Practices for Managing Large XML Data Files • Use XMLTextReader/XMLTextWriter • Smaller memory footprint than using XmlDocument • XmlTextReader is a pull model parser which only reads a “window” of the data • XmlDocument builds a generic, untyped object model using a tree • Type stored as string • OK to use with smaller documents (64K XML: ~0.25s) • Optimize the structure of XML document • Use elements to group (allows use of Skip() in XmlReader) • Use attributes to reduce size - processing attribute-centric documents is faster • Keep it short! (attribute and element names) • Avoid gratuitous use of white space • Use XmlReader/XmlWriter factory classes to create optimized reader or writer • Applying proper XMLReaderSettings can improve performance

    41. Data Business logicand presentation Businesslogic GUI controls In-memorydata copy Custom dataStructures arrays, collections DataSet XmlDocument DataAdapters Serialization Custom binary XmlSerializer IXmlSerializable File system Binary ortext file XMLfile SQLServerMobile DataReaders Transports Active Sync HTTP Sockets MSMQ ReplicationOr RDA Webservices Remote system OtherDataSources OtherDB SQLDB

    42. Data Business logicand presentation Businesslogic GUI controls SqlCEResultSet DataReader In-memorydata copy Custom dataStructures arrays, collections DataSet XmlDocument Serialization Custom binary XmlSerializer IXmlSerializable File system Binary ortext file XMLfile SQLServerMobile

    43. Data Business logicand presentation Businesslogic GUI controls In-memorydata copy Custom dataStructures arrays, collections DataSet XmlDocument DataAdapters Serialization Custom binary XmlSerializer IXmlSerializable File system Binary ortext file XMLfile SQLServerMobile DataReaders Transports Active Sync HTTP Sockets MSMQ ReplicationOr RDA Webservices Remote system OtherDataSources OtherDB SQLDB

    44. Web ServicesWhere is a bottleneck • Are you network bound or CPU bound? • Use perf counters: socket bytes sent / received. Do you come close to the network capacity? • If you are network bound - work on reducing the size of the message • Create a “canned” message, send over HTTP. Compare performance with the web service. • If you are CPU bound, optimize the serialization scheme for speed • http://blogs.msdn.com/mikezintel/archive/2005/03/30/403941.aspx

    45. Moving Forward • More tools • Live Remote Performance Counters Under construction • Allocation profiler (CLR profiler) • Call profiler • Working set improvements • More speed

    46. Summary • Make performance a requirement and measure • Understand the APIs • Avoid unnecessary object allocation and copies due to • String manipulations • Boxing • Not pre-sized collections • Understand data access performance bottlenecks

    47. Community Resources • At PDC • ILL03 Intelligent Data Synchronization in a Semi-Connected Environment • ILL04 Write Once, Display Anywhere: UI for Windows Mobile Devices • TLN316 Windows Mobile: New Emulation Technology for Building Mobile Applications with Visual Studio 2005 • After PDC • MSDN dev center: http://msdn.microsoft.com/mobility/ • .NET Compact Framework Team Blog: http://blogs.msdn.com/netcfteam/ • .NET Compact Framework Performance FAQ: http://blogs.msdn.com/netcfteam/archive/2005/05/04/414820.aspx

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    49. © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.