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Classic French Literature. J. C. Fernand. Age of Enlightenment. Western philosophy grounded in the 18 th century. It held reason above all other abstracts or concepts of legitimacy. This was not a singular school of thought, but rather a vast collection of rationality-based philosophies.

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age of enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
  • Western philosophy grounded in the 18th century. It held reason above all other abstracts or concepts of legitimacy.
  • This was not a singular school of thought, but rather a vast collection of rationality-based philosophies.
  • Took hold in Europe, the American Colonies, Russia, Scandinavia, parts of Latin America, and still some more.
  • Scholars refer to the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars as the endpoint(s) of the Age of Reason.
lisbon earthquake cont d
Lisbon Earthquake (cont’d)
  • The great earthquake struck the Kingdom of Portugal on Saturday 1 1755.
  • Anywhere between 10,000 to 100, 000 people may have fallen because of it.
  • Besides that, the event severely disturbed the Kingdom’s colonial ambitions and strengthened pre-existing political tensions.
  • Modern geologists believe it may have reached close to a magnitude 9 on the moment magnitude scale.
  • The Lisbon Earthquake is the deadliest in recorded history.
reign of terror cont d
Reign of Terror (cont’d)
  • Started 1793 June 27– Ended 1794 July 27
  • Extremely violent duration that lasted one year and a month after the start of the French Revolution; based on political rivalry between Girondins and the Jacobins.
  • The Guillotine, otherwise known as “National Razor”.
  • 16,000 to 40, 000 <estimated> dead
  • Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Antoine Lavoisier, etc.
  • Execution of several Reign of Terror leaders, including Robespierre, officially ended The Terror.
bastille cont d
Bastille (cont’d)
  • The Bastion de Saint-Antoine was originally built as a gate during the Hundred Years war and became a prison after the conflict was done.
  • The first king to send prisoners there was Louis XIII.
  • Rumors began to spread amongst the common people that a fair deal of arms and gunpowder were being stored there; they demanded to see this.
  • The storming of the Bastille, which occurred on July 14 1789, was one of the key events leading directly to the French Revolution.
  • July 14th is now celebrated annually as Fête Nationale or ‘Bastille Day’.

“I do not agree with what you have to say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it.”

Born 1694 November 21 - Died 1778 May 30 (84yrs)

Real name: Francois-Marie Arouet

marquis de sade
Marquis de Sade

“In order to know virtue, we must first acquaint ourselves with vice.”

Born 1740 June 2 – Died 1814 December 2

(74 yrs)

Real Name: Donatien Alphonse François de Sade

the 120 days of sodom
The 120 Days of Sodom

Les 120 journées de Sodome or l'école du libertinage

alexandre dumas
Alexandre Dumas

“Only a man who has felt ultimate despair is capable of feeling ultimate bliss.”

Born 1802 July 24 – Died 1870 December 5 (68yrs)

Real Name: Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie

victor hugo
Victor Hugo

“Nothing else in the world... not all the armies... is so powerful as an idea whose time has come.”

Born 1802 February 26 – 1885 May 22 (83 yrs)

Real name: Victor-Marie Hugo

gaston leroux
Gaston Leroux

"Wildly my Mind beats against you, but my soul obeys."

Born 1868 May 6 – Died 1927 April 15 (58 yrs)

Real Name: Gaston Louis Alfred Leroux

the phantom of the opera
The Phantom of the Opera

Le Fantôme de l'Opéra

  • The 120 Days of Sodom and Other Writings [Paperback] Marquis De Sade (Author), Richard SeaverRichard Seaver (Translator) (Translator), AustrynWainhouse (Translator), Simone de Beauvoir (Introduction), Pierre Klossowski (Introduction)
  • Candide (Barnes & Noble Classics Series) by Voltaire, Gita May (Illustrator), Alan Odle (Illustrator), Henry Morley (Translator), Lauren Walsh (Translator)
  • Count of Monte Cristo (abridged) (Barnes & Noble Classics Series) by Alexandre Dumas, Luc Sante (Introduction)
  • Phantom of the Opera (Barnes & Noble Classics Series) by Gaston Leroux, Rachel Perkins (Illustrator), Isabel Roche (Introduction)
  • The Man Who Laughs by Victor Hugo