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H 2 whOa !. The Governor’s Institute of Environmental Science & Technology- Water Group. Analyzing data of the physical, chemical, biological parameters to make sure the rivers are healthy.

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h 2 whoa


The Governor’s Institute of Environmental Science & Technology- Water Group

water pollution study

Analyzing data of the physical, chemical, biological parameters to make sure the rivers are healthy.

“It doesn’t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are. If it doesn’t agree with experiment, it’s wrong.”

-Richard Feynman


The Governors Institute of Vermont Environmental Science and Technology have conducted a series of tests and assessments for the overall quality of the rivers, Centennial and Mill brook .

Water Pollution Study

 We have damaged the rivers and now we want to fix them.

Testing to ensure the water quality is normal

To better understand the wildlife

To get experience in field work.

centennial brook
Centennial Brook:

Land within the watershed

The Brook is located in a urban area.

The main part of the brook is

.08 miles in length.

It has many branches of water, but 2 main sections that branch towards the east and the south.

It’s no longer touched by humans(as in farming and living).

It has lower water levels that can be seen by past erosion located higher than the water levels now.

Residential areas of the east side take up a lot of the watershed.

The Watershed drains 887 acres

mill brook
Mill Brook
  • Mill Brook is part of the Winooski Watershed, located in Jericho, Vermont.
  • Jericho is mainly farmland, with some residential areas.
  • Mill Brook is located in a rural area without a lot of civilization.
  • Mill Brook is used for recreational boating as well as trout fishing.
  • Mill Brook is about 9.5 miles in length.
mill brook watershed
Mill Brook Watershed

Mill Brook watershed area is 10,350 acres.

stream h abitat a ssessment results
Stream Habitat Assessment Results

Centennial Brook: Averages

Mill Brook: Averages

Centennial Brook: Suboptimal 130

Mill Brook: Suboptimal 140

ph and light

pH and Light

A pH measurement of 7.0 is considered neutral for water so both brooks were more basic. pH can affect which organisms live in the water.

Light levels affect watersheds by controlling temperature and algae growth.

EPA standards for pH measurement are between 6.5 and 8.0 so both brooks are within the Federal Standards.


Conductivity = how well water can conduct electricity.

Directly related to dissolved ions/temperature (the warmer the water, the better the conductivity)

Sources of ions:

  • Sodium (road salt)
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Aluminum
  • Chloride
  • Nitrate
  • Sulfate
  • Phosphate
dissolved oxygen temperature
Dissolved Oxygen & Temperature

Streams produce and consume DO

Velocity and vegetation add oxygen

Aquatic organisms and organic matter consume oxygen.

Dissolved oxygen is directly related to temperature.

The Numbers:

Centennial Brook:

Temp: 19°C

DO: 11.2 mg/L

Acceptable: 6.22-9.26 mg/L

Mill Brook:

Temp: 13.5°C

DO: 9.8 mg/L

Acceptable: 6.8-10.5 mg/L

  • Enters water systems by natural and human methods
  • Must be limited to not accelerate eutrophication- accelerated plant growth, algae blooms, low dissolved oxygen and death of certain aquatic animals
  • Centennial vs. Mill Brook

Nitrate content data

Testing water samples for

PO4-3 and NO3-

NO3- & NO2-

Pollution sources: fertilizers, septic tanks, sewers

Algae growth  limited sunlight

macroinvertebrate survey
Macroinvertebrate Survey

What are macroinvertebrates?

Why should we study them?

How do we collect them?

What do our results mean?

sem data
SEM Data

What is SEM?

What can it do?

What did we find?

 Calcium, Carbon


element map of black fly larva
Element Map of Black Fly Larva


Green= Carbon

Red= Oxygen



Despite the fact that Vermont is one of the healthier states in the country, actions still must be taken to improve the overall quality of the rivers and streams

  • Waste water management/ water filtration
  • Patrol for invasive aquatic plants and animals
  • Weekly monitoring of the lake water quality
  • Healthy buffer zones
  • River and stream habitat awareness