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Immigration 1815 - 1860. 1815 – 1860 5 million Europeans came to the U.S. 3 million came in one decade 1845 – 1854 Largest immigration proportionate to the total population in American History Irish were the most numerous immigrant group Germans second

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immigration 1815 1860

Immigration 1815 - 1860

1815 – 1860 5 million Europeans came to the U.S.

3 million came in one decade 1845 – 1854

Largest immigration proportionate to the total population in American History

Irish were the most numerous immigrant group

Germans second

Other groups include: England, Scotland, Whales, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Holland

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations

Why did most immigrants come to the U.S.

Religious freedom

Mormons recruited in the slums of England

Emigrants from Norway were Quakers fleeing persecutions by Lutheran clergy

Largest numbers of immigrants had come to the U.S. to better their economic situation

Many expected utopia

Travel to U.S. was terrifying

Farming in U.S. lacked the social aspects that European farmers were accustomed to having.

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations

Ports of departure were often used by custom. Each country would tend to use one port more than another. Therefore, immigrants entering the United States would enter into the same port from the same country most of the time.

Irish – New England, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey

Germans – New Orleans, but then settled in the upper Mississippi and Ohio valleys, (Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri)

Settlement patterns characterized immigrants

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations

Germans and Irish tended to concentrate in cities forgoing farming

Cities need strong labor forces

Irish built the houses, new streets, and aqueducts that were changing urban America

Irish also built canals and railroads

Cities offered social aspect that farming lacked for the immigrant

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations – The Germans

Diverse group

Bavarians, Westphalians, or Saxons rather than Germans.

Could be Catholic, Protestant, most often Lutherans and Jews.

Came from a wide range of social classes and occupations

Mostly farmers, some were professionals, artisans, and trades people.

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations – The Germans

Heinrich Steinweg – Henry Steinway

Steinway pianos

Levi Strauss – Levi’s

Bound together by common language

Stayed in German neighborhoods

Climbed social ladder in their on ethnic communities

Schools, volunteer organizations, newspapers, etc

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Immigration 1815 - 1860

Expectations – The Germans

Economic self-sufficiency conspired with the strong bonds of their language to encourage a clannish psychology among the German immigrants

Americans admired industriousness

Americans resented their economic success

Americans disdained their clannishness.