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1840 - 1860 . A Clustering of Innovation. Let the Clustering Begin!. 1841 Calotype (Talbot) 1842 Cyanotype (Herschel) 1840’s Albumen (Talbot, Niepce, Blanquart- Evard) 1851 Collodion (Archer) 1850’s Ambrotype (Archer, Fry) 1853 Tintype (Martin) 1856 Oxymel (Llewelyn).

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1840 1860

1840 - 1860

A Clustering of Innovation

let the clustering begin
Let the Clustering Begin!
  • 1841 Calotype (Talbot)
  • 1842 Cyanotype (Herschel)
  • 1840’s Albumen (Talbot, Niepce, Blanquart- Evard)
  • 1851 Collodion (Archer)
  • 1850’s Ambrotype (Archer, Fry)
  • 1853 Tintype (Martin)
  • 1856 Oxymel (Llewelyn)
1841 calotype process
1841 - Calotype Process
  • Positive/Negative process introduced by Fox Talbot
  • Paper brushed with weak salt and silver nitrate solution
  • Competed with the Daguerreotype
calotype vs daguerreotype
Calotype vs. Daguerreotype
  • Advantages
    • could make an unlimited number of prints
    • retouching could be done on negative or print
    • prints on paper were easier to examine, less delicate
    • had warmer tones
  • Disadvantages
    • arrested by patent restrictions
    • materials less sensitive to light, longer exposure time
    • imperfections of paper reduced quality
    • process had two stages positive/negative, took longer
    • prints tended to fade with time
1842 cyanotype
1842 - Cyanotype
  • Introduced by Sir John Herschel
  • Used iron salts instead of silver compounds
  • Highly stable
  • Brilliant blue images
  • Most popular around the turn of the century
  • Used for architectural blueprints
late 1840 s albumen
Late 1840’s - Albumen
  • Introduced by Abel Niepce
  • Search to combine best of Daguerreotype and Calotype
  • Albumen (the white of an egg) used as a binder on glass
  • Fine detail, improved quality, but slow process time
  • Blanquart-Evrard took albumen and used it on paper
  • Process kept chemical “on the paper”, not in it which produced finer detail and glossy
  • Some critics of the glossy image
1851 collodion
1851 - Collodion
  • Introduced by Frederick Scott Archer
  • Used gun cotton as a binding agent
  • Used glass plates, very sharp images, better quality than Daguerreotype and Calotype
  • Difficult process and somewhat dangerous
  • Never patented, allowed further innovations to spawn from it
1850 s ambrotype
1850’s - Ambrotype
  • Introduced by Fred Scott Archer and Peter Fry
  • Inexpensive
  • No lateral reversal
  • Could be viewed from any angle
1853 tintype
1853 - Tintype
  • Introduced by Adolphe Alexandre Martin
  • Used enamelled tinplate instead of glass
  • One step process, no negative
  • Inexpensive
  • Robust
1856 oxymel
1856 - Oxymel
  • Introduced by J. D. Llewelyn
  • One of the first “Dry” processes to be used
  • Illustrated Evening News hailed it as a considerable advance
  • Negatives prepared in advance and later developed at leisure