Healthcare. By : Kristine Cargill, Tifenie Harris, Kayla Klosterman , Lindsey Post, Rebecca Williams, William Winowiecki. Mental Health In Michigan - Past. Prior to opening of mental institutions, people classified as insane were locked in cellars, attics, and jails
Aortic Stenosis is when the aortic valve is narrowing and its inhibits delivery of blood throughout the body. Some of the signs and symptoms of this disease are fatigue, fainting, heart failure, and chest pain.
In cases of severe aortic stenosis, it was always recommended to replace the aortic valve with a pig valve or mechanical valve.
In elderly patients it was always contraindicated to operate due to the risk factors against the benefits. But now…….
At Munson Medical Center, Traverse City Michigan, in August of 2012 they performed the first TAVR procedure in this region. What the TAVR procedure entails is entering through the femoral artery using a small incision and catheterizing the valve verses splitting the chest open and performing open heart surgery. What this entails is shorter hospital stays and minimal risks for infection. This procedure is only performed on the clients with severe stenosis whom aren’t qualified for open heart valve replacement.
Medicare is an insurance policy for people over the age of 65 and it is
continuously changing because people want to get better insurance
for the money they are paying.
The major problems with Medicare during 2010 was the coverage and the payments. The past problems with Medicare were called “the donut hole” because some seniors hit a point where they weren’t getting insurance to pay for their medications since they had reached a certain limit and some weren’t able to pay for it on their own because there medications were very expensive but there was a way to help with the cost of medications, it was a rebate check for $250 that senior citizens had the chance for when they reached their limit.
In 2012 the Medicare coverage was able to change to covering
drug benefits and health-care unlike in the previous years.
Compared to 2011 in 2012 elders are only charged a
small amount out-of-pocket co-pay. Some of the different
parts of Medicare can be charged a smaller amount for a co-pay
compared to years before.
The “donut hole” in Medicare is still a problem now but it is
Shrinking. At the moment generic medications can be discounted by 14% which is double the discount from 2011 which was 7%.
An additional change that has occurred over the years is that if someone had Medicare or Medicaid they don’t have to pay for any co-payment of their medications.
The “donut hole” that has been a problem for
years with Medicare could
be non existent in 2020 and someone that has
Medicare would only be
paying 25% of any prescription medication they needed.
Some parts of the future of Medicare are looking bad because there might be
a $716 billion cut after 2013 because of the Affordable Care Act. There is also a possibility that the age that people can start using Medicare will raise because there are so many people that are starting to use it. The “baby boomers” are going to start getting older and they will start to need Medicare and it will cause problems for the people that need it after them. Some of the premiums that people have to pay every month could also start to rise and when people don’t have an income other than Social Security it makes it difficult for them to afford their Medicare and medications.
Bed side care relied upon mother, wife or good neighbor to care for or keep an eye on patients at their homes.
Children were born and the doctors relied upon their own wife's or a preachers wife to go in and help with the care.
Logbook by Capt. Alex Harrison indicated someone was hospitalized with a date of Oct 11, 1785
Hospital barrack conditions in Detroit June 24, 1790
Hospitals = one room, 21 single berths and one chimney
Earliest hospital in Detroit which is still in existence is St. Mary’s June 9, 1845Nursing and Hospitals in MichiganPast
New healthcare delivery models
Shortage of nurses – helps drive to do more with less
Nurse going beyond being the caregiver to being the integrators, care coordinators and efficiency experts
News models have in common
1. Moving nurse from caregiver to “care integrators”
2. Team approach
3. Bridging the care to outside the primary care
4. Home being a setting for care
5. Targeting people who access healthcare on a regular basis
6. Focusing more on patients
7. Using technology as an advantage
8. Improving satisfaction, quality and costNursing and hospitals in MichiganPresent
Robots – future of patient care
Radiofrequency – ID tags that track every employee
Smart beds – track patients breathing and heart rates to their chart
Will have two goals
1. improve clinical care
2. cut error rates
By 2015 The home will be the main place of care. Monitoring equipment at home that will be sent automatically to the Doctor – will keep patients out of ER’s and urgent cares
Michigan has 31 hospitals who use robots to rapidly diagnose stroke before the narrow window of treatment closesNursing and Hospitals in MichiganFuture
In the past pharmacies were commonly called drug stores.
In the mid to late 1800’s many doctors began creating medicines. Some of these doctors dropped their practices and focused solely on the development of drugs. They did not need a pharmacy degree although degrees began to be offered in 1895 at the University of Michigan. Pharmacists learned through apprenticeships.
Many pharmacies were not located in their own building, one called the Opera House Pharmacy was located in Baird’s Opera House in Lansing, other locations were just as interesting.
Most drug stores also had things such as food and soda fountains.
Lansing was a major center for pharmacy operations between 1873 and 1920. Over 86 druggists, chemists, and drug manufacturers appeared in the city directory during that time.
Almost all pharmacists were males.
Pharmacists main role was to fill prescriptions.
The University of Michigan started to teach Pharmacy in 1868, Ferris State University (then Ferris State Industrial School) taught its first pharmacy student in 1893, and Wayne State University (then the Detroit College of Medicine) offered its first Pharmaceutical degree in 1891.
Old prescription bottles from http://www.glswrk-auction.com/contest06-7.htm
Walgreens Logo from http://www.wehokey.com/
Today pharmacies can be found in nearly every community.
Walgreens, CVS, and Rite-Aid are popular retail pharmacy chains found in Michigan.
Pharmacies are also located in hospitals.
Pharmacists work with insurance companies for cost effective care for the patients.
Pharmacies have started to use electronic prescriptions and online pharmacies are frequently used.
A greater focus is on patient care as opposed to strictly filling prescriptions.
Only three Colleges of pharmacy exist in the state, they are at Wayne State, Ferris State, and The University of Michigan.
Most pharmacists go to school for at least 6 years and receive a PharmD degree.
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