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Adoption drivers:. Understanding the adoption constraints and drivers of on-farm change. NEELS BOTHA. DNZ Seminar, Newstead, Hamilton, 3 March 2011. Method. Reviewed NZ adoption research Identified: Themes Main drivers/constraints Report. Main points. On-farm change:

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adoption drivers
Adoption drivers:

Understanding the adoption constraints and drivers of on-farm change

  • NEELS BOTHA

DNZ Seminar, Newstead, Hamilton, 3 March 2011

method
Method
  • Reviewed NZ adoption research
  • Identified:
    • Themes
    • Main drivers/constraints
  • Report
main points
Main points
  • On-farm change:
  • If what you are doing now is not working: STOP! Find a better way.
  • To overcome adoption constraints you need to:
    • Understand your customers/clients
      • How they think and what they do
    • Know the business of your customers/clients
      • How the business works
    • Know (work out) how to use 1 and 2 to encourage change
starting point
Starting Point
  • Rationality
    • People are rational decision-makers, so they...
      • seek optimal solutions
      • but they lack the resources and time, so they...
      • simplify their available choices
  • Decision-making
    • Comes before adoption
    • Happens at two levels:
      • Intuitive = “in the head” calculations/assessment.
      • Deliberate = use tools, do a “formal” assessment.
  • Motive
    • Reasons and excuses (invalid reasons - often based on non-critical thinking)
our research shows
Our research shows
  • When deciding to adopt/reject technologies (ideas) farmers (individuals like us) consider drivers and constraints
    • Once they are aware of the technology/solution
  • If they dislike the outcome, the technology / idea gets shelved
    • If it fails the test (consideration) – no adoption
  • These considerations are very important if you want to achieve on-farm practice change
areas of consideration
Areas of consideration
  • Individual /person
  • Attributes of the technology/solution under consideration
  • Context
person related self considerations
person-related (self) considerations
  • Am I convinced there is a problem?
  • Am I responsible or can/will someone else deal with it?
  • Am I convinced the “solution” will actually solve the problem? (perception = reality)
  • Can I do this? (knowledge, skills, experience, energy)
      • Self-efficacy
      • Confidence
  • What happens... if I fail (...if it fails)?
      • Fear of failure
based on personal questions barriers
Based on personal questions / barriers
  • What could be done do overcome these barriers?
what to do
What to do?
  • Convince there is a problem:
      • Size, impact, cost, “hassle” factor...
      • Benchmarking and gap analysis
  • Responsibility
      • Talk to the right person / decision-maker
      • Make aware (animal welfare and environmental problems)
  • Convince that the solution will work?
      • Examples of success
      • Objective data/information
      • Trusted individual
      • Link to best practice
  • Foster a sense of confidence (fear of failure is linked to competence, perfectionism)
      • Personal (this is not too hard)
      • System support makes it easy
      • Address procrastination (impact worsens, costs, opportunity goes away...)
considerations about the solution
Considerations about the solution
  • WIIFM (“What’s In It For Me?”)
  • People try to figure out two things:
      • the value proposition
      • how well the solution fits their goals
  • Dairy farmers trade 3 things off (value proposition):

“time”

“work”

“money”

what to do1
What to do?
  • Have answers ready about the impacts of your (the) solution on:
    • Time
      • How much time does it take?
      • How much time does it save?
      • What is the value of the time gained or lost? (family/other work/rest...)
    • Work
      • Who will be doing the work?
      • How long will it take (time)?
      • How hard is it (effort)?
      • How difficult is it? (complexity)
      • How much energy does it take (time/effort/difficulty)
      • Does it require extra staff?
    • Money
      • Costs
      • Benefits
      • Savings
  • Have examples of the interplay (T/W/$)ready
  • Show how solution will help achieve goals
context related considerations
context related considerations
  • Context has to do with: Having and Doing
  • ”What I have”
    • Infrastructure / hardware
    • Cows
    • Grass
    • Money
    • Records
  • “What I do - with what I have”
    • Activities
context related considerations1
context related considerations
  • How well does the solution fit “What I have” (e.g. Infrastructure)
    • Fences
    • Races
    • Water
    • Shed(s)
    • Shelter
    • Housing
    • Vehicles
    • Office, computer, telecommunication...
    • Etc....
  • How well does the solution fit “What I do with what I have” (activities)
    • daily?
    • seasonally?
      • Records, accounts, decision-making, family, move cows, feed animals, milkings, ......
based on context related considerations
Based on context related considerations
  • What could be done about this?
what to do2
What to do?
  • Have answers ready about the impacts of the solution on: cows, grass, infrastructure....
  • Have answers ready about the impacts of the solution on activities:
      • Daily
      • Seasonal
      • Annual
main points1
Main points
  • On-farm change:
  • Do you know if what you are doing is actually working?
  • If it is not working: STOP! Find a better way.
  • To overcome adoption constraints you need to:
    • Understand your customers/clients
      • How they think and what they do
    • Know the business of your customers/clients
      • How their businesses work
    • Know (work out) how to use 1 and 2 to encourage change
things to think about
Things to think about
  • Whose behaviour do you want to change? Why?
  • Does a one-size-fits-all approach to on-farm practice change actually work?
  • Why is providing information / knowledge the most used but not always the best approach?
  • How to get clients from intuitive to deliberate decision making?
  • What is the best way to know the impact of my own efforts to get something adopted?
  • Why is knowing farmers’ goals so important?
  • Can we ever know how “a farmer” makes decisions?
  • What is the biggest weakness in your own mental model about on-farm practice change?
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