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FUNCTIONALISTS / STRUCTURALISTS Mommsen, Broszat (1970s <) Opportunistic, non-determinist, weak dictator. “Confusion of Private Empires” (Mommsen). LEGACY of Bismark, Kaiser and Weimar – continuation of Germany’s past.

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Mommsen, Broszat (1970s <) Opportunistic, non-determinist, weak dictator.

“Confusion of Private Empires” (Mommsen)

LEGACY of Bismark, Kaiser and Weimar – continuation of Germany’s past.

HITLER – led state through propaganda rather than organisation and leadership.

DUALISM – chaos in Germany as Nazi and State organisations overlapped and clashed. Eg – Police v Army v SS v Gestapo.Econ – Schacht v Goering v Tadt v Darre. Educ – von Shirach v Rust v Himmler.

WAR YEARS – permanent confusion and conflict in planning (admitted needed army more onside)


ECONOMIC RECOVERY – was shaky. A full war-economy didn’t exist until 1942.

NO CLEAR LINES OF AUTHORITY – Eg big businesses didn’t know where to go to get effective action.

SPEER – often privately over ruled Hitler’s orders during war that would have caused further destruction for Germany.

POLYCRATIC REGIME – Large no of power bases Eg Goering, Goebbles and Himmler sought power and titles. Gauleiters could become very powerful at local level.

HITLER MANIPULETED – by key figures eg Martin Borman.

HITLER didn’t create policy – he sanctioned whichever competing parts of states had succeeded in seeing off rivals.

NAZI LEADERS IN CONFLICT – Continually clashed in seeking power

HITLER – was an opportunist. He only sprung into action in emergencies.

INDIVIDUAL MINISTERS – left to own devices because Hitler was lazy, hated paperwork and was preoccupied with pet projects like re-building Berlin!

IDEOLOGY – Confused and contradictory.

HITLER – destroyed State Organisations with destructive policies. Gradually previously strong organisations like the army and civil service were worn down to collapse.

EARLY 20s – Hitler said he was the ‘drummer’ for the Volkish movement, making way for a more major figure to follow.


Bullock, Bracher, Fest, Shirer 1945-c.1970s Planned, Determinist, Totalitarianism, Strong Dictator.

“Nazism was Hitlerism” (Bracher)

PLANNED rise to power – policy of legality after Munich confused everyone, achieved broad-based support.

DURING WAR – Persuaded Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg to allow Nazi to enter Gov – Feb ‘38. Persuaded Czech President Hacha to allow Nazis into country. Nullified Anglo-German Naval Agreement and planned invasion of Poland, once Britain had given ultimatum.

TOTALITARIANISM – one leader, one party, one ideology.

FUHRER PRINZIP – All powerful leader.


ALL POLICIES – went through Hitler, his word was law.

ARMY – swore to die for him and to protect him.

CULT OF LEADERSHIP – charismatic leader underpinned by propaganda Eg Nuremburg Rallies.

WAR CRIMES TRIALS – Nazi officials declared they had simply “followed orders”

WORSHIPPED by other leading Nazis.

ECONOMY – strong, as unemployment was virtually nil and Germany was preparing for autarky.

POWER STRUGGLES – were allowed between ministers to gain more power for Hitler.

IDEOLOGY – strong core of War, Racial Extermination and Fuhrer Prinzip.


EXTERNALLY – 1933 Enabling Act, Law Against Formation of Parties, becoming Fuhrer.

INTERNALLY – 1934 Night of the Long Knives.

TERROR HOUSE – SS, Gestapo and to some extent SA all under Hitler’s control and in turn controlled masses through fear.

EDUCATION SYSTEM – strong, from teachers, to students in the class room and the Hitler Youth.

FEW REBELLIONS – Generally people supported his policies and ultimately supported him.