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  1. Culture

  2. What is Culture • The customs, traditions, beliefs and values that a group of people share. • It includes language, what they do, eat, make, believe and how they dress. • Groups that share these traits are called a cultural group.

  3. Culturevaries around the world Buddhist Monks in Myanmar English Punk Rocker

  4. There are two elements of Culture • Material culture – is tangible – it has a physical reality. • Non-material culture – are things that don’t have a physical reality, such as values, beliefs and religion. Cathedral of the Assumption in Ireland

  5. Material Culture • The things that a culture has made. • They have physical reality – you can touch them. • What culture is this identified with? • What does it tell you about the culture

  6. Non Material CultureThe products of collective human activity that have no physical reality • Beliefs • Customs • language • Symbols • Music • Government. What does a handshake symbolize?

  7. Cultural SymbolsNon-material Culture • What is this? • What culture is this part of? • What are some other cultural symbols?

  8. Social Structure • All cultures have a social structure. • A way of organizing people into smaller groups. • Each group has particular tasks. • Tasks include protection, raising children, food, laws and teaching. In Medieval Europe the task of Knights was to protect the community.

  9. Social Groups • Social groups are smaller units of a culture. • They include groups such as the family, military, classes, religions and government. Medieval Social Pyramid

  10. Family • The most important social unit of any culture is the family. • The task of the family is to teach children culture – the customs, traditions, values and ways of doing things.

  11. Two types of families • Nuclear Family – parents and children, most important in western countries such as Great Britain, Germany and U.S. • Extended family – generally more important in eastern cultures.

  12. Patriarchy and Matriarchy • Patriarchy – cultures where men make most of the family decisions • Matriarchy – cultures in which women have more authorities • Most cultures have been patriarchies

  13. Religion in Cultures • Religion is an organized system of beliefs with specific rituals and practices that includes the super natural. • Religion can guide people in ethics – standards of accepted behavior. The Koran – the holy book of Islam.

  14. Monotheism • Every culture we know of had a belief in the super natural. • Monotheism is a belief in a single God. • Christianity, Islam and Judaism are all monotheistic religions. Star of David – symbol of Judaism

  15. Amish Culture • The Amish are a sub-culture in America. • A cultural group that lives within the existing larger national group. • The Amish Culture keep to themselves as much as possible.

  16. Amish History • Religious Group. • Roots are in Anabaptist movement of the 1500’s. • Ethnically German-Swiss. • Amish in America dates from 1693.

  17. Amish Beliefs • Very strict – especially the Old Order group • About 198,000 Old Order Amish in United States. • The Ordnung is an oral tradition of rules which regulates how the Amish way of life should be conducted

  18. Amish Cultural Values • Family • Humility • Anti-individualism • Calmness & Composure • Education only to the 8th grade

  19. Amish Virtues • Modesty and purity are important virtues. • The Amish are pacifists - they reject all forms of violence. • They do not serve in the military. • They admire large families.

  20. Amish Dress • Amish wear traditional and plain clothing • It shows they are not conforming to the world. • It expresses an obedience to their church. • It shows their lack of vanity.

  21. EducationOne Room School House Formal education beyond Grade 8 is discouraged.

  22. Rejection of Conveniences • Most Amish reject modern technology such as automobiles. • They believe it promotes pride or vanity in one’s possessions.

  23. Amish farming is often without machines

  24. Amish Hand Weaving

  25. Hand-made Items