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  1. Soft X-ray FELProject in the UK New directions in ultra-fast dynamic imaging Jon Marangos (Imperial College), Project Leader May 2009

  2. KEY NEW SCIENCE WE WANT TO DO:  IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES. Instantaneous images of nanoscale objects with nanometre resolution at any desired moment.  CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMS. Characterizing the rapid intrinsic evolution and fluctuations in the positions of the constituents within matter.  STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES. Following the structural dynamics governing physical, chemical and biochemical changes by using laser pump- X-ray probe techniques.  ULTRA-FAST DYNAMICS IN MULTI-ELECTRON SYSTEMS. Capability for measuring the multi-electron quantum dynamics that are present in all complex matter * Science Case Available at

  3. New science enabled by an ultra-fast bright light source covering THz to Soft X-ray range

  4. IMAGING NANOSCALE STRUCTURES Imaging of Isolated Objects by Coherent Diffraction Imaging Reconstruced image Instantaneous capture of: Shape Atomic Structure Magnetic structure Electronic properties in Nanoscale Objects AND Biological Systems Scattering pattern Isolated nano-object To capture “soft” systems like biomaterials need to use “Diffract and Destroy” X-ray pulse < 5 fs - 20 fs 300 eV - 1 keV

  5. 30 Reconstructed image DESY, Uppsala, SLAC, LLNL Collaboration 60 Resolution length (nm) 0 Scattering intensity 60 1 micron 30 From Janos Hajdu (Uppsala) Biological x-ray imaging would be extended into water window and beyond withprospects for 1nm feature resolution in instantaneously recorded images Live unmodified picoplanktonFLASH, Hamburg March 2007 Single shot ~10 fs diffraction pattern recorded at a wavelength of 13.5 nm of a picoplankton organism.

  6. CAPTURING FLUCTUATING AND RAPIDLY EVOLVING SYSTEMSSpontaneous dynamics in condensed matter: Correlation Spectroscopy Ultra-fast Bright Soft X-rays Enable: Time Resolved Holography Ultra-fast XPCS Multiple exposures only work for “hard” samples capture I(Q,t)*I(Q,t + ) Fluctuating System (x,y,z,t) Pairs of X-ray pulses Delay < 1 fs - 100 ns  300 eV - >5 keV

  7. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS UNDERLYING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES New Pump-Probe Measurements of Structural Dynamics: UV-THz short pulse pump to trigger change Soft X-ray to probe Dynamics studied by varying pump-probe delay Probe changes in atomic, electronic and magnetic structure following electronic or lattice excitation: New window into ultra-fast dynamics in condensed matter and chemical reactions

  8. Incisive structural probes such as X-ray absorption will be key to this science • UV/IR/THz pump (including optimally shaped control pulses) • Ultrafast X-ray probes e.g. XAS, XPS,XES to give instantaneous structure during chemical reactions and condensed matter changes Photon energy range must capture the important K and L edges, a machine with harmonics to ~7 keV is eventually required

  9. Attosecond electron dynamics are amenable to study through the interaction with bright short wavelength fields.Seeding is very important to ensure synchronisation, high coherence and well controlled and characterized temporal structure. • Probing of hole dynamics in atoms, molecules and condensed matter in real time • - Time-space resolved studies of nanoscale electron dynamics, e.g. in nanoplasmonic structures • Real time probing of coherently driven processes for optimised quantum control of matter Revealing Electron Dynamics into Attosecond Domain

  10. What New Capability Do We Need For This New Science? • High temporal resolution pump-probe needs ~20fs pulses and excellent temporal synchronization • Seeded – and so highly coherent and synchronized • Structural methods (e.g. XAS) need multi-keV photons • High peak brightness to wavelengths <1nm needed for single-shot imaging techniques • High repetition rate/reproducible pulses needed to enable a whole new range of time-resolved measurements where high signal/noise is demanded

  11. Baseline Specification for NLS to Deliver this Science • High brightness (>1011 photons/pulse) in 50eV – 1keV range • Harmonic radiation to 3keV (>108 ph/pulse) and 5keV (>106 ph/pulse) • Pulse duration ~20fs • Smooth wavelength scanning across entire spectral range • Synchronized to ultra-fast light sources covering THz- deep UV • 1KHz repetition rate with even pulse spacing (10 - 100kHz in future) • Fully coherent X-rays (transverse and longitudinal) - seeded

  12. Meeting the Baseline Specification • Free-Electron Lasers to cover the range 50 eV to 1 keV : FEL1: 50 - 300 eV FEL2: 250 - 850 eV FEL3: 430 - 1000 eV - independently tuneable through undulator gap variation - variable polarization using APPLE-II undulators - seeded in order to provide longitudinal coherence, in 20 fs pulses - harmonics up to 5 keV available • Conventional laser sources + HHG for 60 meV (20 mm) – 50 eV • IR/THz sources, e- beam generated and synchronised to the FELs, from 20 – 500 mm

  13. facility layout High Power Laser Gallery (1st floor ) EXPERIMENTAL AREA Experimental Enclosures Photon Transports ~80m. BEAMLINES Electron Beam Dumps Beam Stop & Absorber 3 FELs operating simultaneously Gas Harmonic Filters THZ/IR Undulators ~90m. FELs. SXR Undulator Arrays 5 x Dipole Arc Spreader FEL ‘switchyard’) Strip[ine & Kicker SPREADER Diagnostics : Tomography Diagnostics : Deflecting Cavity Collimators 1kHz gun – eventually increasing to >10 kHz LINAC. BC3 ~400m. Bunch compressor BC1 Laser Heater BC2 3rd Harmonic Cavity SCRF Cryomodule #1 PHOTO-INJECTOR. SCRF Booster Module RF Photo-cathode Gun CW Superconducing Linac

  14. Modulator 1λw = 44 mm Modulator 2λw = 44 mm APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 32.2 mm FEL3 HHG 75-100eV e- @ 2.25 GeV 430 - 1000eV Modulator 1λw = 44 mm APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 38.6 mm Modulator 2λw = 44 mm HHG 75-100eV FEL2 e- @ 2.25 GeV 250-850eV APPLE-II Radiatorλw = 56.2 mm Modulatorλw = 49 mm FEL1 HHG 50-100eV 50-300eV e- @ 2.25 GeV FEL Scheme - common electron energy for all 3 FELs, allows simultaneous operation - seeded operation for longitudinally coherent output - HHG seeding with realistic laser parameters, up to 100 eV - harmonic cascade scheme to reach up to 1 keV

  15. NLS Architectural Layout (View from Photo-injector end) Linac & RF Services Bldg Cryoplant & Services Bldg Linac Machine Tunnel Gun Laser Rooms & Klystron Plant Module Test Area/ Offices & Control Room FEL Tunnel NLS Architectural Layout (View from Experimental Hall end) Experimental Hall

  16. Next Steps • Complete an Outline Design for Facility • Find viable “in principle” solutions to all aspects of the design • Develop bid to pass through STFC approval and also gain support from other research councils • Deliver Conceptual Design Report in Autumn 09 • Seek international engagement in the plan • Ask for money

  17. NLS Science Team • Andrea Cavalleri (Hamburg/Oxford) Condensed Matter • Swapan Chattopadhyay (Cockcroft) Accelerator Concepts • Wendy Flavell (Manchester) Chemical Sciences • Louise Johnson (Diamond/Oxford) Life Sciences • Jon Marangos (Imperial) Leader / Attosecond Science • Justin Wark (Oxford) High Energy Density Science • Peter Weightman (Liverpool) Life Sciences • Jonathan Underwood (UCL) Chemical Sciences • Greg Diakun (Daresbury) Project Manager • Richard Walker (Diamond) Photon Source Manager A large number of other scientists have contributed and are contributing (including many from Europe, Japan and USA) NLS Design Team R.P. Walker, R. Bartolini1, C. Christou, J-H. Han, J. Kay, I.P. Martin1, G. Rehm, J. Rowland, Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire, UK, 1and John Adams Institute, University of Oxford, UK D. Angal-Kalinin, J.A. Clarke, D.J. Dunning, A.R. Goulden, S.P. Jamison, K.B. Marinov, P.A. McIntosh, J.W. McKenzie, B.L. Militsyn, B.D. Muratori, S.M. Pattalwar, M.W. Poole, N.R. Thompson, R.J. Smith, S.L. Smith, P.H. Williams, STFC/DL/ASTeC, UK N. Bliss, M.A. Bowler, G.P. Diakun, B.D. Fell, M.D. Roper, STFC/DL, UK J. Collier, C. Froud, G.J. Hirst, E. Springate, STFC/RAL, UK J.P. Marangos, J. Tisch, Imperial College, London, UK B.W.J. McNeil, University of Strathclyde, UK